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APEH Semester 1 Study Guide

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APEH Semester 1 Study Guide
Late Middle Ages (12):
Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) Between England and France for the French throne. Edward III of England owed Feudal homage to the King Philip VI, but refused to pay.
Renaissance (13)
Major figures during the Renaissance:
Leonardo Da Vinci-> Mona Lisa;
(1452 – 1519) Leonardo was the supreme Renaissance painter, scientist, inventor, and polymath.
Micaelangelo-> (1475 – 1564) Renaissance sculptor, painter and architect. Michelangelo is often thought of as embodying the spirit of the renaissance. His greatest works include the statue of David and his painting of the Sistine Chapel.
Raphael-> (1483 – 1520) Italian painter. One of the three members of the high Renaissance trinity. Raphael was asked by Pope Julius II to work on rooms in the Vatican at the same time as Michelangelo worked on the Sistine chapel. Raphael was known for the perfection and grace of his classical interpretations.
Titian-> 1488-1576) An Italian painter, Titian was a member of the 16th Century Venetian school. He was a prolific and verstaile artist who experimented with new forms of art, such as subtle variations in colour.
Donatello-> (1386-1466) An Italian painter and sculptor. Donatello was a key figure in the early Florence renaissance. Major works includ David, Virgin and Child with Four Angels, St Mark and The Feast of Herod.
Johannes Gutenberg & the printing press Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press with replaceable/moveable wooden or metal letters in 1436 (completed by 1440). This method of printing can be credited not only for a revolution in the production of books, but also for fostering rapid development in the sciences, arts and religion through the transmission of texts.
Medici family of Florence (Cosimo d’ Medici; Lorenzo d’ Medici (“the Magnificent”) Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 9 April 1492) was an Italian statesman and de facto[1] ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (Lorenzo il Magnifico) by contemporary Florentines, he was a diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists, and poets. He is perhaps best known for his contribution to the art world, giving large amounts of money to artists so they could create master works of art. His life coincided with the high point of the mature phase Italian Renaissance and his death coincided with the end of the Golden Age of Florence. Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was the first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance; also known as "Cosimo 'the Elder'" ("il Vecchio") and "Cosimo Pater Patriae" (Latin: 'father of the nation').
Machiavelli (The Prince)
Early Renaissance scholars:
Petrarch Francesco Petrarch was an Aretine scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance.
Lorenzo Valla an Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator. He is best known for his textual analysis that proved that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery.
Leonardo Bruni an Italian humanist, historian and statesman. He has been called the first modern historian.
Northern Renaissance humanists:
Erasmus a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style.
Thomas More was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, and statesman and noted Renaissance humanist. He was an important councillor to Henry VIII and Lord Chancellor. More opposed the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of Martin Luther. More also wrote Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system of an ideal and imaginary island nation. More lately opposed the King's separation from the Catholic Church and refused to accept him as Supreme Head of the Church of England because it disparaged papal authority and Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
Jacques LeFevre d’Etables a French theologian and humanist. He was a precursor of the Protestant movement in France.
Reformation (14)
Theresa of Avila a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, an author of the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered to be a founder of the Discalced Carmelites along with John of the Cross.
Ignatius Loyola a Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus and, on 19 April 1541, became its first Superior General.
Passional of Christ & Antichrist (1521) Created by Lucas Cranach Text by Philip Melanchthon strongly implies an anti-Catholic point of view
Charles V ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.
Council of Trent issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies at the time of the Reformation and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints. It issued numerous reform decrees.[3] By specifying Catholic doctrine on salvation, the sacraments, and the Biblical canon, the Council was answering Protestant disputes.
John Calvin an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism.
Star Chamber (late 15th century-1641) an English court of law that sat at the royal Palace of Westminster from the late 15th century until 1641.
Peace of Augsburg (1555) officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire.
Treaty of Westphalia (1648) ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.
Elizabeth I (Thirty Nine Articles) historically defining statements of doctrines of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation. First established in 1563, the articles served to define the doctrine of the Church of England as it related to Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practice.
Henry IV (Edict of Nantes) Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity.
New Monarchs the New Monarchs was a concept developed by European historians during the first half of the 20th century to characterize 15th-century European rulers who unified their respective nations, creating stable and centralized governments
Politiques During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, politiques were those in a position of power who put the success and well-being of their state above all else.
Exploration (15)
Bartholomew Dias a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer. He sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, the first European known to have done so.
Vasco de Gama 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India
Las Casas 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar. He became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". Fierce supporter of human rights
John Harrison & the chronometer (18th century)—late exploration as a self-educated English carpenter and later a clockmaker. He invented the marine chronometer, a long-sought device in solving the problem of establishing the East-West position or longitude of a ship at sea, thus revolutionizing and extending the possibility of safe long distance sea travel in the Age of Sail.
Treaty of Tordesillas divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain along a meridian 370 leagues [note 1] west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands entered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Spain),
Absolutism & Constitutionalism (16)
Edict of Fountainbleu granted the Huguenots the right to practice their religion without persecution from the state LOUIS XIV
The Edict of Nantes granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in a nation still considered essentially Catholic
“Divine right of kings” political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm, including (in the view of some, especially in Protestant countries) the Church. According to this doctrine, only God can judge an unjust king.
Bishop Bossuet a French bishop and theologian, renowned for his sermons and other addresses. He has been considered by many to be one of the most brilliant orators of all time and a masterly French stylist.
Court preacher to Louis XIV of France, Bossuet was a strong advocate of political absolutism and the divine right of kings. He argued that government was divine and that kings received their power from God. He was also an important courtier and politician.
Henry VIII (Anglican Church) besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and his own establishment as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
King Louis XIV known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death.
Frederick William the “Great Elector” a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously. His shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalia political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom, achieved under his son and successor.
Peter the Great (also know his expansion accomplishments) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother. In numerous successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a huge empire that became a major European power.
Defenestration of Prague were two incidents in the history of Bohemia; there have been more, see below. The first occurred in 1419 and the second in 1618, although the term "Defenestration of Prague" more commonly refers to the later incident. Both helped to trigger prolonged conflict within Bohemia and beyond. Defenestration is the act of throwing someone or something out of a window. The First Defenestration of Prague involved the killing of seven members of the city council by a crowd of radical Czech Hussites. The Second Defenestration of Prague precipitated the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. Initially, religion was a motivation for war as Protestant and Catholic states battled it out even though they all were inside the Holy Roman Empire. Changing the relative balance of power within the Empire was at issue. Gradually, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe. [11] In this general phase the war became less specifically religious and more a continuation of the Bourbon–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence, leading in turn to further warfare between France and the Habsburg powers.[12]
“Golden Age of the Netherlands” was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The first half is characterized by the Eighty Years' War until 1648. The Golden Age went on in peace time during the Dutch Republic until the end of the century.
English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political problems between Parliamentarians (Roundheads) and Royalists (Cavaliers)
Roundheads SUPPORTED BY CALVINISTS--name given to the supporters of the Parliament during the English Civil War. Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I and his supporters, the Cavaliers (Royalists), who claimed absolute power and the divine right of kings.
Cavaliers SUPPORTED BY ANGLICANS name used by Parliamentarians for a supporter of King Charles I and his son Charles II
Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England.
Navigation Laws were a continuation of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England. Did not abandon mercantilism policies
Liberum veto (Latin for "the free veto") was a parliamentary device in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was a form of unanimity voting rule that allowed any member of the Sejm (legislature) to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify any legislation that had already been passed at the session by shouting Nie pozwalam! (Polish: "I do not allow!").
Serfdom (Eastern vs Western Europe) The decline of serfdom in Western Europe has sometimes been attributed to the Black Death, which reached Europe in 1347,[1] although the decline had begun before that date. Serfdom became increasingly rare in most of Western Europe after the Renaissance, but conversely, it grew strong in Central and Eastern Europe, where it had previously been less common (this phenomenon was known as "later serfdom").
Treaty of Utrecht (1713) The treaties between several European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war. Ended Spanish Succession and French expansion.
Ottoman Empire’s expansion
Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment (17)
Copernicus a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the universe which placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center.
Galileo Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism.
Isaac Newton (universal gravitation)
Rene Descartes (deductive approach and the scientific method)
Francis Bacon (empiricism and the inductive approach) practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Empiricism is a theory of knowledge which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau & his Social Contract
Catherine the Great Russia was revitalized under her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognized as one of the great powers of Europe.
Frederick the Great (what philosopher influenced him the most?) Voltaire-Europe’s greatest propellor-head and the philosopher-playwright who inspired his entire generation.
Joseph II Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, and was the brother of Marie Antoinette
Adam Smith Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment,[1] Adam Smith is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
Economic liberalism belief in organizing the economy on individualist lines, meaning that the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals and not by collective institutions or organizations.
Laissez-faire economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from government restrictions, tariffs, and subsidies, with only enough regulations to protect property rights. “LET IT BE”
Expansion (18)
Versalius’ The Structure of the Human Body a collection of textbooks on human anatomy
Thomas Hobbes (advocated absolutism)
Jethro Tull’s seed drill increased crop yields, start of industrial revolution
Migration trends to the New World
Thomas Paine Paine emigrated to the British American colonies in 1774 with the help of Benjamin Franklin, arriving just in time to participate in the American Revolution. His principal contributions were the powerful, widely read pamphlet Common Sense
18th century society (19):
Child rearing practice changes (enlightenment effects) emphasis on reconstructing humanity and creating a reasonable citizen, also encouraged advice-giving and -seeking in child-rearing matters.
Lady Montagu (smallpox—early methods of vaccine) the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1798. He followed up his observation that milkmaids who had previously caught cowpox did not later catch smallpox
Edward Jenner (smallpox vaccine)
Commercial Revolution period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the 13th century until the early 18th century. It was succeeded in the mid-18th century by the Industrial Revolution
Price Revolution relatively high rate of inflation that characterized the period from the first half of the 16th century to the first half of the 17th
English Puritans (Calvinists) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians
Presbyterians (Calvinists that favored Scottish Presbyterianism) branch of Reformed Protestantism which traces its origins to the British Isles. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, which is government by representative assemblies of elders
English Puritans significant group of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries, including, but not limited to, English Calvinists. Puritanism in this sense was founded by some Marian exiles from the clergy shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, as an activist movement within the Church of England.
Treaty of Paris (1763) signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
Deism gained prominence in the 17th and 18th centuries during the Age of Enlightenment—especially in Britain, France, Germany, and the United States—among intellectuals raised as Christians who believed in one god, but found fault with organized religion and did not believe in supernatural events such as miracles, the inerrancy of scriptures, or the Trinity
Revolution in Politics (20):
Louis XVI King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, after which he was subsequently King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution.
3 Estates clergy, nobility, everyone else
Bourgeoisie wealthy people of the third estate
Tennis Court Oath pivotal event during the first days of the French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 of the 577 members from the Third Estate
National Convention comprised the constitutional and legislative assembly of France
Napoleon Bonaparte French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe.
Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars
Concordat of 1801 agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801. It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status.
Olympe de Gouges French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience. She began her career as a playwright in the early 1780s.
Industrial Revolution (21):
Zollverein The Zollverein, or German Customs Union, was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories. Created a free trade between German states.
Order of countries to industrialize Industrialisation through innovation in manufacturing processes first started with the Industrial Revolution in the north-west and Midlands of England in the 18th century.[11] It spread to Europe and North America in the 19th century. RUSSIA WAS SECOND TO LAST
Shift in women’s financial contribution to the family women contributed to the finical situation and more to the household
Chartist movement a working-class movement for political reform in Britain between 1838 and 1848 which took its name from the People's Charter of 1838.
Factory Law of 1833
-No child workers under nine years of age
-Employers must have an age certificate for their child workers
-Children of 9-13 years to work no more than nine hours a day
-Children of 13-18 years to work no more than 12 hours a day
-Children are not to work at night
-Two hours schooling each day for children
-Four factory inspectors appointed to enforce the law.
Italian Renaissance the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries
Northern Renaissance focused more on religious ideals
High Renaissance the artistic style of early 16th century painting in Florence and Rome; characterized by technical mastery and heroic composition and humanistic content
Mannerism (El Greco) notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities.[3] Mannerism favours compositional tension and instability rather than the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting. Mannerism in literature and music is notable for its highly florid style and intellectual sophistication. El Greco enriched his style with elements of Mannerism and of the Venetian Renaissance. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death. In Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best-known paintings.
Baroque exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.
Neo-classical is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome. The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, latterly competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th and 20th centuries and into the 21st.
Rococo Rococo artists opted for a more jocular, florid and graceful approach to Baroque art and architecture. Rococo art and architecture in such a way was ornate and made strong usage of creamy, pastel-like colours, asymmetrical designs, curves and gold. Unlike the more politically focused Baroque, the Rococo had more playful and often witty artistic themes.
1. What swiftly spread news, info and literacy rates? Printing press
2. Wrote Utopia Thomas More
3. Emphasized effective leadership and keeping power at all costs The Prince
4. Prominent Spanish mystic & leader who promoted a strong relationship, personal relationship with God Theresa of Avila
5. Supported repressive measures to combat heresy in Catholic countries Ignatius Loyola
6. English court of law that’s use stripped the nobility of power Star Chamber 7. Strongly implies non-Catholic point-of-view Passional of Christ and Antichrist
8. Both he and Martin Luther agreed to maintain the sacraments of baptism and communion John Calvin
9. Broke up the Holy Roman Empire & consequently freed Switzerland and the Dutch Republic from its influence Treaty of Westphalia
10. One of this group’s main goals was to reduce the power of the nobility new monarchs
11. Was an immediate cause of the Thirty Years’ War Defenestration of Prague
12. First to find an all-water route to India Vasco de Gama
13. First to round the southern tip of Africa Bartholomew Dias
14. Creator of an 18th century navigation device, the chronometer John Harrison
15. Both Elizabeth I and Henry IV could be called this due to their attempts to appeal to the middle-road in their political decisions Politiques
16.This agreement ended a territorial dispute between Spain and Portugal Treaty of Tordesillas
17. Could be called the architect of Prussian statehood and helped in the emergence of Prussia as a European power in the 17th century Frederick William the “Great Elector”
18.This bishop would have been quick to defend that “the king is god” Bossuet
19. This document ended the War of Spanish Succession and also contained Louis XIV’s expansion Treaty of Utrect
20. He wanted to westernize Russia & also developed Russia’s Baltic region Peter the Great
21. Fierce supporter of human rights, particularly of Native Americans Las Casas
22. Replaced by the Edict of Fountainbleu Edict of Nantes
23. Louis XIV passed this order to end religious toleration because he did not want to protect any group that did not primarily support the king Edict of Fountainbleu
24. Reformed the abuses of the Catholic Church Council of Trent
25. Ruled at the height of Florence’s power Cosimo de’ Medici

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