AP World Chapter 13 Notes
Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America
Paleolithic=Old Stone Age peoples
Australia, Siberia, the arctic coastlands, parts of Africa, and the Americas were all Paleolithic peoples
Australia had 250 or so separated groups in it
Despite the absence of agriculture, Australia’s peoples had mastered and manipulated their environment, in part through the practice of “firestick farming” (deliberately setting fires, as a way of cleaning up the country)
Exchanged goods among themselves over distances of hundreds of miles, and created elaborate mythologies and ritual practices and developed sophisticated tractions of sculpture and rock painting.
North America – hosted some 300 edible animal species and an abundance of salmon and other fish, which provided the foundation for what scholars sometimes call “complex or affluent” gathering and hunting cultures.
Contrast from that of Australia were the permanent village settlements with large and sturdy houses, considerable economic specialization, ranked societies that sometimes included slavery, chiefdoms dominated by powerful clan leaders or “big men” and extensive storage of food.
Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois
Igbo Society – East of the Niger River, in the heavily forested region of W. Africa. Rejected kingship and state-building efforts of their neighbors.
“the Igbo have no kings” – relied on other institutions to maintain social cohesion beyond the level of the village: title societies in which wealthy men received a series of prestigious ranks, women’s associations, hereditary ritual experts serving as mediators
Traded actively among themselves and with more distant peoples, (e.i. Songhay people in Africa far to the north.)