2. The Constitution stated that there would be the Supreme Court, and Congress would create lower level courts as needed. With the creation of the Judiciary Act of 1789, the structure and jurisdiction of the national court system was more clearly defined. The position of attorney general was created as well.
3. Marbury v Madison introduced the concept of judicial review. Judicial review allows the judiciary to check the actions of the executive and legislative branches if it is believe that these bodies did not act in accordance to the constitution. By bringing about judicial review, Marbury v Madison strengthened the system of checks and balances.
4. Many Anti-Federalists feared judicial review made the judiciary too strong, however Hamilton argued the judiciary was still the weakest branch of government, as it had no control over money or the military. Hamilton also argued that the judiciary branch depends on the other branches to uphold its judgments.
5. Civil cases are often brought up by individuals, seeking money owed or monetary damages. Criminal cases are brought up by local, state or federal government, due to an entity violating some type of law. Criminal cases generally are held to make the defendant pay a fine, or possibly go to jail.
6. If there is a case at the federal level, it is first brought to a US District Court. There are 94 US District Courts that hold about 270,000 trials per year. If a side of the case believes the result of this trial was unfair, they go to a US Court of Appeals. There are 13 of these courts handling 50,000 cases per