anatomy and physiology

Topics: Vitamin, Pregnancy, Milk Pages: 11 (1840 words) Published: May 23, 2014


Jennell Attidore, Patricka Gibson, Helena Scotland


W.H.O. gave the definition for nutrition as the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs. They also defined good nutrition and poor nutrition; good nutrition is an adequate, well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity and is a cornerstone of good health. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity.

During the stages of pregnancy the mother body begins to change and adapt to the growing fetus. At the first trimester the mother experiences symptoms i.e. nausea and vomiting and increase in weight and breast size. Careful attention should be paid to the mother’s food habits and nutritional status because it is at this trimester the brain, arms. Legs and internal organs of the fetus begin to form. In the second trimester, the woman’s pregnancy becomes visible, her heart rate and blood rate increases. In the third trimester, the fetal organs mature. During pregnancy the nutritional requirements vary; different amounts of nutrients and calories are needed to sustain both the mother and the developing fetus. The woman should have a well balanced diet with increase in all the essential nutrients In this assignment we discuss

the nutritional needs for a pregnant woman,
why nutrition is important at this time,
the amount of calories and protein they need,
factors that can prevent them from consuming proper nutrition, and A basic menu for a pregnant woman.

When women become pregnant their nutritional needs change and somewhat differs from what their normal nutritional needs would have been when they were not pregnant. There becomes an increase demand for certain nutrients as it assists with the proper nutrition for the fetus as well as the mother, through this time.

During the first trimester little or no extra calories are need. By the second trimester the amount of calories increases by 340kcals/day and 500kcals/day in the third trimester. More calories are needed to support the growth of the fetus, development of the placenta & maternal tissues, to deposit fat which will be used during lactation, supply the fuel needed by the enlarged metabolic workload and to store protein for additional tissue building requirements. For efficient use of proteins during pregnancy, at least 36kcal/kg is required.

For body tissues to grow protein is a primary need during pregnancy. Proteins contribute to rapid growth of the baby, increase in maternal blood and formation of amniotic fluid, as well as the development of the placenta and protein reserves prepares the mother for labour, delivery and lactation. An additional 15g/day is required in the 2nd and 3rd trimester.

This is essential for brain development and prevents preterm births. It is required for fetal visual development It reduces the incidence of heart diseases & heart disease related deaths in infants. VITAMINS & MINERALS:

In order to meet the greater structural and metabolic requirements, during pregnancy, all vitamins and minerals are needed. However, there are various vitamins that are needed in increased amounts, during pregnancy. Two important elements that contribute to tissue growth include Vitamins A&C. The B vitamins are also needed because of their vital roles as coenzymes factors energy production and protein metabolism. CALCIUM: this is needed for growth and development of bones and teeth of the fetus, decreases the risk of hypertension, pre-eclampsia in mothers and low birth weights and chronic hypertension in newborns....

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