Analysis of a Bladeless Steam Turbine for Use in a Domestic Combined Heat and Power System

Topics: Cogeneration, Gas turbine, Steam engine Pages: 37 (12116 words) Published: June 14, 2013
Analysis of a bladeless steam turbine for use in a domestic combined heat and power system Peter Burton
Edinburgh Napier university

Abstract
This report analyses the suitability of a bladeless ‘Tesla’ type steam turbine to determine its merit for use in a domestic combined heat and power system. A physical prototype was developed and built so that cost and performance data could be determined. With this done, a cost analysis was prepared to evaluate its performance when integrated into a theoretical Rankine cycle CHP system. The performance of the system was then compared with that of other CHP systems currently on the market. It was determined that the capital cost of the system was much lower that other systems however its efficiency was far lower.

Contents
Abstract1
Contents2
Table of figures4
Introduction5
Literature review7
Background of steam7
The impulse steam turbine8
Rankine cycle9
Micro Turbines10
Impulse type design10
Radial type design12
Bladeless turbine13
Combined Heat and Power15
Micro CHP16
Domestic CHP17
Gas CHP17
Stirling engines17
Biomass CHP17
Design18
Steam engine selection18
Bladeless turbine design20
Fluid to disk power transfer22
Working fluid23
Development23
Sizing of disks23
Disk number and spacing24
Bearings25
Disk holes26
Exhaust ports27
Stepped spacers27
Inlet nozzle28
CAD in design process28
Testing29
Aim29
Measuring power output29
Speed measurement31
Test rig31
Air supply31
Dynamometer32
Method32
Design variations33
Results33
Discussion36
Cost analysis of turbine in CHP system36
Heat requirement38
Boiler design38
Heat exchangers40
Turbine cost41
Providing a useful electrical output42
Total cost43
Calculations43
Comparison with competing systems44
Biomass Stirling CHP44
Product lifecycle analysis45
Installation cost45
Using the turbine with a solar system45
Reciprocating engines45
Conclusion46
Limitations of analysis46
Comparison with other systems46
Market potential46
Health and Safety47
Recommendations47
Scope of work47
Testing47
FEA47
Steam testing47
Flow rate and disk spacing48
Heat exchanger analysis48
Optimising efficiency48
Bearing improvement48
Condensate in the turbine.49
Effect of disk number on performance49
Organic Rankine cycle49
Consideration of open loop steam system49
Bibliography50

Table of figures
Figure 1 Flow of fluid through a parsons turbine (http://boomeria.org/physicstextbook/ch9.html)8
Figure 2 Three stage impulse steam turbine9
Figure 3 Rankine cycle10
Figure 4 Example of a micro gas turbine produced by ‘Bladon Turbines’ (http://www.ploong.com/dissecting-the-sophistication-of-the-jaguar-c-x75-technology/micro-turbine-gas-bladon-jets-on-jaguar-c-x75)10

Figure 5 Compressor and turbine blades from the Capstone turbine12
Figure 6 Example of Compressor and turbine blades from a typical turbocharger12
Figure 7 Cutaway diagram showing internals of capstone turbine design13
Figure 8 diagram of tesla turbine14
Figure 9 Graph showing the typical relationship between efficiency and output for bladed and non-bladed turbines.15
Figure 10 Diagram of energy distribution in Domestic gas CHP system17
Figure 11 Cutaway diagram of SunMachine biomass CHP boiler18
Figure 12 Greensteam 'Z8' steam engine19
Figure 13 one of tesla's original turbine designs20
Figure 14 40mm shaft26
Figure 15 Power/Speed graph 1st generation34
Figure 16 Power/Speed graph 2nd generation34
Figure 17 Speed/Power graph 3rd generation35
Figure 18 Speed/power graph 4th generation35
Figure 19 Proposed CHP system37
Figure 20 Picture of Lynx Steam boiler design39
Figure 21 HDG PM15 self-feeding pellet boiler40

Introduction
Micro generation is growing in popularity as it offers the user the ability to supplement...


Bibliography: Bruce W. Wilkinson, R. W. (1980). Cogeneration of electricity and useful heat. CRC press.
Dixon, S. (1998). Fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of turbomachinery. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.
Joel Weisman, L. E. (1985). Modern power plant engineering. Prentice-Hall.
LynxSteam. (2010, 03 19). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Ift3UNKLvs.
Rice, W. (2003). Handbook of Turbomachinery. Dekker mechanical engineering.
Smiley, A. G. (2009). Experiment and analysis for improved design of the inlet and nozzle in tesla disk turbines. Bristol: University of Bristol.
Tesla, N. (1913). Patent No. US Pat. 1 061 206. USA.
U.S Energy Information Administration. (2012, January). U.S Energy Information Administration, Independent statistics and analysis. Retrieved February 28th, 2012, from www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/pdf/epm.pdf
P.-S
Calculation,’’ M.S. Thesis, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering, Arizona State University, May (1986)
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