Air Pollution Control Management

Topics: Air pollution, Emission standard, National Ambient Air Quality Standards Pages: 27 (5935 words) Published: October 30, 2010
Better Air Quality in Asian and Pacific Rim Cities (BAQ 2002)

16 Dec 2002 – 18 Dec 2002, Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre (HKCEC)

Air Quality Management in Pakistani Cities: Trends and Challenges Dr. Noman Fazal Qadir
Chief Executive GET & Joint Secretary ARUP Islamabad, PAKISTAN email get@isb.paknet.com.pk ABSTRACT: As impact of airborne pollution been widely recognized, its management is considered as an important component in controlling AQ in the Asian Context. Important parameters and components of Air Quality Management are being discussed. AQ can be improved by integrating a number of technical and management options and financial incentives including, monitoring, evaluation and actions e.g. emission inventorization of various type of activities, estimation of Emission Load & future projections, incorporate atmospheric dispersion models in pollution dispersion / dilution, initiate pollution index levels being monitored / dissipated with weather reports, direct & indirect ecological damage and environmental damage by these emissions in urban environment, direct and indirect health impacts, share in the global climate change & warming by this region, revise Emission Standards for various sources including vehicular emissions, policy options for adoption or Action Plans, calculation of effect of abatement and control measures, establishment, improvement and implementation of air pollution regulations, regulations for development of NAAQS / IAQS, Emission Standards for sources, assess the efficiency of these measures in reducing these pollution levels , enhanced public awareness, and for transport sector (which is the main urban air polluter) better traffic flow and transport management / planning in the urban areas (which has not been given due importance until now in Pakistan), change of technology including fuel substitution & conversion to less polluted fuels (e.g. low Sulphur / Lead fuels, CNG), development/enforcement of vehicular emission standards and using management tools for effective implementation of laws linking control on emissions and fuel adulteration, strengthening vehicle inspection and maintenance and transport planning. The present talk will be helpful in briefing about change in the existing air quality management procedures available to Pak EPA, local governments & traffic police in Pakistan, current activities for controlling this menace, their impact on air quality management and future suggestions to include reduction of Air Pollution in the context of a developing country like Pakistan. KEYWORDS : Air Quality Management (AQM), Air Quality Management System (AQMS), National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), Ambient Air Quality (AAQ), Urban / Air Pollution (AP or UAP), Indoor Air Pollution (IAP), Indoor Air Quality Standards (IAQS), 1.0 INTRODUCTION: Ambient Air Pollution is an emerging environmental issue in major cities of Asia and has attracted attention from variety of corners (WB, USEPA, US-AEP and ADB has funded projects on Ambient Air Quality (AAQ) in Asia and recently CAI-Asia been initiated) with a proven direct impact on health & ecosystem of earth. Rapid growth of cities with minimum infrastructure in slum areas, improved economic situation increasing vehicle ownership and quest for development has made the region increasingly concerned for these air emissions and pollutants. According to a report [1], 7 % increase per annum of vehicular ownership and use been observed due to economic growth, rising incomes and urbanization over the last 10 years in India. AAQ impacts generally include direct health problems to the life forms (e.g. humans, animals, fish etc), vegetation and forest growths, damage to soils, climate change impacts including changing the regular patterns of seasons, rains, floods, draughts; desertification, deforestation, global warming, Oxygen and other gas blanket affecting global warming, Ozone layer depletion in stratosphere & formation of smog in...

References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Faiz & Sturn , Atmospheric Environment, 34, 4745-6, 2000 “The behavior of air-borne particulates inside houses: its relevance to nuclear safety “ PhD thesis of Dr. Noman F Qadir submitted at Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK in 1996 http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/sar/sa.nsf/083c4661ad49652f852567d7005d85b8/63d62654c36c516d8525697b004d7b5f WB Pak CASEnv. Sector World Bank’s report for South Asia on web Anand, Proceedings of Workshop on “Integrated Approach to Vehicular Pollution Control in Delhi”, Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, pp 110-7, 1998 EPRC Project : “Setting Environmental Priorities: Valuing the Environment”, Draft Report by M. W. Addison, Dec 31, 1996 and The World Bank Report by Dr. Brandon 1992-3 Report on status of Implementation of Action Plan to achieve Clean Fuel Supply in Pakistan, by standing Committee on Clean Fuels, GOP & Report of the Committee on Clean Fuels: Pak Env protection Council CAI-Asia information from their website. “Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia : Guidebook”; Edited by Jitendra J Shah, Tanvi Nagpal and Carter J. Brandon: The World Bank 1997. and “Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia : Kathmandu Valley Report”, edited by Jitendra J Shah, Tanvi Nagpal, The World Bank Technical Paper # 378; 1997 De Nevers, N.H., Neligan, R. E. and Slater, H. H. 1977:- Air Quality Management, Pollution Control Strategies, Modeling, and Evaluation, A. C. Stern (ed.) Air Pollution, vol 5: Air Quality Management, New York: Academic , 3-40 Lecture at ADB by Dr. Noman F Qadir on “ Air Quality in Urban areas in Pakistan Vs Transport Planning: Issues and Management tools” in a Regional Workshop: Transport Planning, Demand Management & Air Quality” on 26-27 February 2002, at Manila, Philippines, arranged by Asian Development Bank and supported by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia), United States-Asia Environmental Partnership (US-AEP), and Envirox (http://www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2002/RETA5937/Manila/downloads/tp_16B_qadir.PDF ) Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) conducted by an international group of Scientists JICA-Pak EPA, # 3, Review of Pak Environmental Air Quality and Emission Standards Promulgated, May 2, 2001, My Y Shigeta (JICA Env Expert stationed at Pak ) Air Pollution in Peshawar & Impacts of Vehicle Emission Testing Station by GTZ Pak German Urban Industrial Environment Protection Program April 2000. Private communication with ENERCON, Iftikhar A Raja And Arif Alauddin Introduction of Clean Fuels in Pak by Rashid Farooq, DG Oil, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources, GOP. Report on status of Implementation of Action Plan to achieve Clean Fuel Supply in Pakistan, by standing Committee on Clean Fuels, GOP & Report of the Committee on Clean Fuels: Pak Env protection Council CNG Sub-Sector by Hilal A Raza, DG, HDIP on 11 th Jan 2002 A presentation to the Task Force on Integrated Energy Security Action Plan. “Liquid Fuel substitution policies in Pakistan”, by Hilal A Raza, International Symp. on Development Policies for the new Millennium 12-4 July 2000 in Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
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