Semiotics Mind Map
1. Process school.
Figure: See section 6.
“’It sees communication as a process by which one person affects the behaviour or state of mind of another” Fiske (2011: 2)
Figure: See section 7.
“The second school (semiotics) sees communication as the production and exchange of meanings” Fiske (2011: 2) Signification __?
The message interacts with people on order to produce meanings The Message
3. Signs and Codes
“Signs are artefacts or acts that refer to something other than themselves; that is, they are signifying constructs. Codes are the systems into which signs are organized and which determine how signs may be related to each other.“ Fiske (2011: 3, b)
High predictability: Low of information. To be told something expected. Examples: repetitions, “Hi”, respelling etc.
Technical: Accuracy of decoding
Social: For large audiences
Fiske (2011: 9) “That which is predictable or conventional in a message… the result of high predictability” More or less redundant highly redundant
Low Predictability: High of information. To be told something unexpected. New information = low credibility
Technical: Not accuracy of decoding
Social: for small audiences
Fiske (2011: 9) “maximum unpredictability”
More or less entropic highly entropic
6. Shannon and Weaver’s model of communication
Fiske (2011: 6)
Shannon and Wearver (1949)
Process school. A linear process. Encoding / decoding
7. Figure: Messages and meanings
Fiske (2011: 4)
Fiske: messages and meanings
Semiotic school. A triangular process. Interaction
Focus on the reader (receivers) culture, time, experience and the context Meaning creation: “A process of negotiation between writer/reader and text” (Fiske: 80) 8. “Bit”
“We can use the unit “bit” to measure information” Fiske (2011: 8) Bit = binary digit
Measures Yes/No choices.
9. Semiotics - other models
Peirce’s semiotic triangle – Fiske (2011:40)
What it is – the sign (Reprensentamen)
The one who interpret the sign/object. The interpret is individual. Depends on the sign and the object. 4. Icon.
Looks like the real thing. Photo of a lamp is iconic, it is a lamp. 5. Index
A link. Smoke Fire
“In an Icon the sign resembles its object in some way: it looks or sounds like it. In an Index there is a direct link between a sign and its object: the two are actually connected. In a Symbol there is no connection or resemblance between sign and object: a symbol communicated only because people agree that it shall stand for what it does. A photograph is an icon, smoke is an index of fire and a word is a symbol.” 11. Saussure
Saussure’s elements of meaning – Fiske (2011: 42)
The sign – What it is
2. Signifier and signified
The signifier is the physical appearance of the sign. Where is it and what colour is it. The signified is the mental meaning of the sign.
The relationship between signified and signifier.
Meaning creation. We are active and not passive in the meaning creation interaction. “A process of negotiation between writer/reader and text” (Fiske: 80) 5. Iconic looks like the real thing
6. Arbitrary We have agreed on some kind of relation between sign signification the sign is agreed upon among a group of people. – red man = stand, green man = go. 7. Motivation and Constraint is used to describe the determination of constraint. The individual interpretation of a sign-
Constraint = highly motivated (iconic)
Motivation: - Fiske (2011: 51)
What we have been told. It would be highly unconventional to wear bikini en Denmark in November.
12. Significatin – Roland Barthes (1915-1980)...
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