for the Test on Part Four: Hegel
CHAPTER 15: A REVOLUTION IN THOUGHT
The French Revolution was the third great revolution inspired by the values and philosophy of the Enlightenment. What were the values/philosophy of the Enlightenment? How did it differ in attitude from previous eras? And if the French Revolution was the third, what were the first two revolutions it inspired? EMAIL Historical Situation: The Enlightenment in France
Who developed the philosophical ideas which inspired the French Revolution? The significance of the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment was spelled out in France during the middle year of the eighteenth century by a group came to be called the philosophes, by which the Frence meant they were not professional academic philosophers such as might teach at the Sorbonne in Paris. Page 186. The Philosophes
How did the Philosophes compare with professional academic philosophers? They weren’t professional academic philosophers such as might teach at the Sarbonne in Paris, but rather than they were intellectual types, opinion makers, political activists in the sciences or the arts, journalists, café philosophers. Who was the best known person among that group?
Voltaire. Page 187
What was the most famous literary work that the group-as-a-whole produced? EMAIL Encyclopedia which slyly propagandized for revolution. Page 187 What does it mean to describe them as "eclectic"?
Using ideas from rationalism and from empiricism. Page 187
What were the philosophical and political purposes, goals, or ends of the Philosophes? that is, what is it that they wanted to accomplish? To reform or bring down the dominance over France of the Catholic Church and the absolute monarchy, and to establish a new social and political order, based upon the Enlightenment philosophy of the truths of science and of the natural rights of mankind. Page 187 The Fettering of Reason
According to the Philosophes, why has reason been fettered in the past? for what purpose, and by whom? It is because reason has been in chains, say the philosophes; reason has been fettered throughout history by the greed and the lust for power of certain identifiable historical groups. Reason is the only now breaking free from the chains placed upon it by the institutionalized power of the Kings of France and of the Church of Rome. Page 187 and 188. Indoctrination with False Beliefs
What were the false beliefs that the Philosophes charged had been indoctrinated into the public? Moreover, the philosophes charged king and Church with indoctrinating the public with false beliefs (prejudges: presumptions, prejudices) which serve to protect the interests of these ruling institutions—false belief such as the inferiority of the ordinary people, in intelligence and morality, to royalty and the clergy. Page 188. What were the sources of these false beliefs? EMAIL
It was clear to the philosophes that throughout history powerful groups such as the Church and the State in France used philosophic and religious ideas to promote their own interests. Page 188 What were the three ways that the Philosophes attempted to show these beliefs to be false? But now the reason is breaking its chains, these ideas can be shown to be false By appeal to the new empiricists’ question. How do you know? By appeal to the new truths of physical nature established by science or By appeal to the new truths or human nature established by reason, the truths of natural rights, equality under the law, and universal rationality. Page 188. How did the French Philosophes share common ground with Karl Marx’s later concept of "ideology"? In its simplest form, ideology for Marx signifies the set of seemingly true but deceptive ideas by which one social class dominates the thinking of another, in order to exploit them, as the capitalist class dominates the thinking of the workers. Page 188. The Truths of Physical Nature and Human Nature Will Make Men Free...
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