Gilded Age

Topics: History of the United States, Andrew Carnegie, Chinese Exclusion Act Pages: 3 (417 words) Published: December 3, 2013
United States History
“The Gilded Age” Unit
Portrait of America:
Heilbroner, “The Master of Steel: Andrew Carnegie”
McCullough, “The Brooklyn Bridge: A Monument to American Ingenuity and Daring”

“Gilded Age” – Key Terms
Transcontinental Railroads
Union Pacific & Central Pacific
Land Grants
Power – natural monopolies: Vanderbilt
Industrial stimulation
Corruption: stock watering, rebates, pools
Regulation – Wabash case?  Interstate Commerce Act (1887)

Captains of Industry (Robber Barons)
Carnegie – steel (Bessemer process) – “vertical integration” Rockefeller – oil – “horizontal integration”
Morgan – banking – “interlocking directorates” – buys out Carnegie for $400 mil., US Steel “The American Beauty Rose can only be grown by sacrificing the early buds that grow up around it” Standard Oil – by 1877 controlled 95% of oil refineries

Gospel of Wealth – justification?
Natural selection – Social Darwinism
Regulation – Sherman Anti-Trust Law (1890) – forbade combinations in restraint of trade South lags behind – kept there by systems like “Pittsburgh Plus”

Workers hurt by “ironclad” and “yellow-dog” contracts, company towns National Labor Union (1886)
Knights of Labor (1877) – for economic and social reform
Haymarket Square, 1886
American Federation of Labor (1886) – only skilled workers – led by Samuel Gompers – for better wages, hours, and conditions – used walkout and boycott

Life in the Cities
10 million immigrants between 1860-1890
New Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe - faced challenges to assimilate and yet preserve culture and tradition “American fever” – land of opportunity, “streets paved in gold”? Patronage – trading jobs and services for votes for a political “boss” Settlement House (e.g. Hull House by Jane Adams) to help immigrants Nativism

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Question of leadership for blacks
Booker T. Washington vs. W.E.B. DuBois

The Great West and...
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