Chapter 8: Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
Identify physical and cognitive changes typical in early childhood:
Discuss socioemotional development in early childhood and the growing importance of the surrounding environment context: Regulating emotions: page 245- plays a key role in child’s ability to manage the demands and conflicts they face in interacting with others. Connecting through research page 246: when child is distressed a sensitive parent will sooth the child but when child is defiant the parent should exercise a more assertive response.
Discuss the influence of parenting styles on children’s development: LG2: Explaining how families can influence young children’s development See Figure 8.2 on page 254
Classification of Parenting Styles: These four types of parenting styles involve the dimensions of acceptance and responsiveness, on the one hand, and demand and control on the other. Parenting Styles (4 Main): Authoritarian, Authoritative, Neglectful, and Indulgent Authoritarian: restrictive, punitive parenting style. This parent is expects the child to follow their directions and respect their work and effort. They place firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange. They might spank the child frequently, and enforce rules rigidly but not explain them. They might show rage toward the child. Example of authoritarian parent: This parent might say “you do it my way or else” Children of Authoritarian Parents are often: unhappy, fearful, and anxious about comparing themselves with others, they fail to initiate activity, and may have weak communication skills. Authoritative: parent encourages child to be independent but still place some limits and controls on their actions. They allow extensive verbal give-and-take in conversations. These parents are warm and nurturing toward the child. They show pleasure and support in response to children’s constructive behavior. They also expect mature, independent, and age appropriate behavior by children. Example of authoritative parent: This parent might put her arm around the child in a comforting way and say, “You know you should not have done that. Let’s talk about how you can handle the situation better next time.” Children of Authoritarian Parents are often: cheerful, self-controlled, and self-reliant, and achievement-oriented; they tend to maintain friendly relations with peers, cooperate with adults, and cope well with stress. Neglectful: a style of parenting in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child’s life. These parents develop the sense that other aspects of the parents’ lives are more important than they are. Example of a Neglectful parent:
Children of Neglectful Parents are often: socially incompetent, lack self-control, and don’t handle independence well. They frequently have low self-esteem, tend to be immature, and may be alienated from the family. They may show patterns of truancy and delinquency in adolescence. Indulgent: parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. These parents let children do what they want. Some of these parents deliberately raise their children this way because they believe the combination of warm involvement and few restraints will produce a creative, confident child. Example of an Indulgent parent:
Children of Indulgent Parents are often: slow to learn or never learn to control their behavior and always expect to get their way. These children rarely learn respect for others and have difficulty controlling their behavior. They can be domineering, egocentric, noncompliant, and have difficulty in peer relations. Page 255 Chao argues that the Asian American Authoritarian parenting control reflects concern and involvement in their children’s lives and is best conceptualized as a type of training. High academic achievement of Asian children may be the consequence of this kind of “training”....
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