Associate Level Material
Assumptions and Fallacies
Write a 150- to 200-word response to each of the following questions:
• What are assumptions? How do you think assumptions might interfere with critical thinking? What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking?
An assumption is something we take for granted or presuppose, usually it is something we previously learned and do not question. It is part of our system of beliefs. We assume our beliefs to be true and use them to interpret the world around us. Assumptions interfere with critical thinking because we not stop to think about the issue. We let our assumptions take control instead of stopping and looking at the situation to determine the truth about the situation. In order to avoid making assumptions in your thinking, you must gain control of your thinking. We must identify inferences and assumptions in order to see what inferences are illogical when the assumptions that lead to them are not justifiable. Once you become skilled in identifying the inferences and assumptions you are in a better position to question the extent to which any of your assumptions are justified. The key is recognizing and questioning our inferences and assumptions. Fallacies are defined as deception, guile, trickery, the aptness to mislead, a deceptive or misleading argument or an error. Fallacies can be considered as defects that weaken your argument. Fallacies are used in written, oral and visual arguments by using different approaches to sway your way of thinking one way or the other. • What are fallacies? How are fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments? What might you do to avoid fallacies in your thinking?
Fallacies are defects that weaken arguments. By learning to look for them in your own and others’ writing, you can strengthen your ability to evaluate the arguments you make, read, and hear. It is important to realize two things about fallacies:...
References: COSTELLO, F. J. (2009). Fallacies in probability judgments for conjunctions and disjunctions of everyday events. Journal Of Behavioral Decision Making, 22(3), 235-251. doi:10.1002/bdm.623
Riddell, T. (2007). Critical assumptions: thinking critically about critical thinking. Journal Of Nursing Education, 46(3), 121-126
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