AMERICAN STUDIES 10 FINAL STUDY GUIDE
How it relates to class
A. Philip Randolph
-In 1940’s, he led the march on the Washington movement. The Double V Campaign encouraged men to enlist in WWII and they were motivated to demand rights for their sacrifices. He was also a leader in the African American civil rights movement, the American labor movement, and socialist parties. -Discrimination was banned in the defense industries during WWII because of the march on Washington led by Randolph → The march convinced Roosevelt to issue the Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II.
-Referenced on Pg. 163 of Reading-Riddle of the Zoot
-Protested racial discrimination in employment and in the military Bebop
-A style of jazz music that represented defiance during the 1940s. Did not exclusively say it was a product of defiance, but helped toward racial tensions. -Characterized by improve and fast tempo. Dances danced to Bebop included the lindy hop and the apple jack emerged-both also seen as resistive - double v double time (time refers to the speed in bebop)
-A type of music that focused on asymmetry and dissonance, made so white artists couldn't play it (involved technical mastering), lots of improve that moved away from sheet music. Very similar to Jimi Hendrix taking an American style (jazz) and transforming it to fit a new culture with the wave of immigrants. Often played in clubs where zoot suitors loitered, acted as a form of musical protest and resistance against the white mainstream jazz. Birth of a new kind of jazz, one that symbolizes youth and change within American society. shifted focus from white/swing → black/bebop
“An emergency farm labor plan that was extremely successful at meeting its goal of supplying cheap labor.” -After WWII there were several “braceros” (manual laborers) that stopped working as farm laborers on their own side of the border and came to El Paso center to be recruited for agricultural labor. Bracero translates to a “manual laborer who works with arms” The program was started in 1942 by FDR and it allowed Mexican agricultural laborers to have a temporary contract. Mexico was viewed as a part of the Allies during WWII.
Brought hundreds of thousands of Mexican people to the U.S and fostered the idea that Mexican workers were entirely dispensable and that once they were no longer needed they could go back to Mexico -Supplied cheap labor for agribusiness btw 1942 and 1947 continued after WW2
“Operation wetback” 2M Mexican and Mexican Americans who were U.S citizens or legal residents deported back to Mexico. Buffalo Bill
-Creator of the popular commercial entertainment business “Buffalo Bills, Wild West” from 1883-1916, that reduced complex events into romanticized scenes of the frontier. -The creator, William F. Cody=”Buffalo Bill”-the main attraction of the show-because he was a “real” man of the frontier who became popular for killing a young Indian warrior named Yellow Hand, through scalping. -Led people to believe the acts during the show were real, even though they were often dramatized and left out the Indians side of the story -scenes drawn from buffalo bills dime novels and was considered “American national entertainment” and exemplified American history in an inaccurate way. Buffalo bill is considered the hero and a self-made man. Richard Slotkin Reading:
From reading Cultural US Imperialism.
-Romanticized view of the American frontier, not an accurate representation. Double V
-An attempt by African Americans soldiers during WW2; victory at home (against discrimination) and victory abroad with the war. By fighting in the war, they hoped to gain respect and become equals. It was a response to what happened during WW1, when they were promised equality if they fought in the war, but it never happened. -It was an attempt by black soldiers in WW2 to...
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