Social movements in the United States
Antiwar movement-against the Vietnam War
Civil Rights movement-the fight for equal rights for all (Martin Luther King Jr) Women’s Rights movement
These social movements wanted change from the old government policies and/or traditional patterns of behavior.
Some social movements started to fight this change. They wanted to keep tradition. They resisted change. Prayer in Public Schools movement
Usually movements are either change oriented/liberal (top) or change resistant/conservative (bottom); however, a movement is not always one or the other: Women’s Rights movement and Antislavery movement can be both of these. It really depends on how you look at them.
Two types of movements:
Reform movement- changes a small aspect of society but doesn’t completely change everything like government or economy Civil Rights Movement- it wanted limited change; equal rights Revolutionary movement- participants want to completely change everything China Revolution- Communists transformed China’s economy by taking away property and giving it to the state (gov’t) Usually accompanied by violence
This violence can be called terrorism by the ruling power being threatened Guerrilla warfare-a war tactic where the fighters use the land and geography to their advantage. They fight in small wars and move very quickly. Counterinsurgency techniques- how the ruling power responds to the movement, arrests, executions…Think of the techniques used by the Egyptian government
Two types of Revolutions
Left-wing revolution-goal is to change major social and political institutions. Oftentimes, redistribution of wealth-lessening the gap between rich and poor. Right-wing revolution-goal is to restore traditional institutions. Maintaining social order and traditional authority is more important than achieving social equality. *Revolutions can be both of the above
Why do revolutions happen? Five Critical Factors
Mass frustration- A large percentage of the population becomes unhappy with the ruling power Dissident elite political movements- there is division among the elite (groups who have money, influence and power) Unifying motivations- there is powerful motivation that unites people from all classes (poor people unite with the rich over one issue) A severe political crisis paralyzing the capabilities of the government- a defeat in war, natural disaster, economic depression; anything that weakens the state in the eyes of the people A permissive or tolerant world context- the governments of other nations do not intervene to prevent a revolution
Mass Frustration and Popular Uprising
Everyone is upset
Relative deprivation- people expect they should be able to live a certain way (comfortably with material pleasures) but are not capable of obtaining them. Example: a child who puts up a fuss and won't eat his dinner because he/she wanted chicken nuggets and is served tuna casserole. The child's feeling of being deprived is relative when you know that thousands of children around the world have nothing to eat at all. Also, there can be an increase in expectations that causes relative deprivation Example: a person learns about how other people live (foreigners) and wants to change their life to be more comfortable There can be a change in what people think is morally right. This happened in Latin America in the 70s and 80s. M
Many young men and women in the church began to think that the Church should help more in the lives of the poor Rather than just focus on spiritual needs, they decided to expand to social justice needs. This is called Liberation Theology
There is a theory that states that revolutions happen after a period of economic improvement followed by a sudden decline in living conditions (war, disaster) So the people were accustomed to a comfortable lifestyle then it was quickly taken away from them. Urban...
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