"Taxation" Essays and Research Papers

Taxation

TAXATION * It is a means by which governments finance their expenditure by imposing charges on citizens and corporate entities. * Governments use taxation to encourage or discourage certain economic decisions. For example, reduction in taxable personal (or household) income by the amount paid as interest on home mortgage loans results in greater construction activity, and generates more jobs. See also taxation principles. * Taxation refers to the act of a taxing authority actually levying...

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Taxation

TAXATION An involuntary fee levied on corporations or individuals that is enforced by a level of government in order to finance government activities. TAXES Compulsory monetary contribution to the state's revenue, assessed and imposed by a government on the activities, enjoyment, expenditure, income, occupation, privilege, property, etc., of individuals and organizations. A fee charged ("levied") by a government on a product, income, or activity. If tax is levied directly on personal or corporate...

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Taxation

 Taxation of U.S. Non-Resident Aliens and Foreign Corporations Baker College of Muskegon Elizabeth Lamas Taxation of U.S. Non Resident Aliens and Foreign Corporations Throughout this quarter we have learned how different entities are taxed, but we have not learned how foreign corporations and nonresident aliens are taxed. The purpose of this research paper is to discuss the basic concepts of how these two entities are taxed in the United States. A foreign corporation is any corporation...

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Taxation

Question 1. One of the important concepts in Canadian taxation is integration. Discuss the mechanisms built into the Canadian tax system for Canadian controlled private corporations to allow for integration. In your discussion, include the taxes put into the system to prevent deferral, the dividend gross-up and dividend tax credit prior to 2014 and for tax years after 2013. Discuss both investment income and business income. Question 2. Memo To: Staff Accountant From: Manager ...

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Taxation

Helal Uddin FCA Course Instructor Course Title: Taxation Course code: CAN 4135 United International University (UIU) Submitted By: NAME | ID | Md. Billal Hussain | 111092096 | Rifat Silvee Alam | 111092094 | Sajida alam | 111091071 | Nazia Zabin | 111083088 | SECTION – A Date of Submission: 22th May, 2013 Letter of Transmittal 22th May, 2011 To, Md. Helal Uddin FCA Course Instructor Taxation Dear Sir, Here is the recommendation report...

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Taxation Issues

is collected) is also around 79 %; according to a report of 2009 by World Bank, the evaded tax was around 786 Billion compared to a 1.1 collection of tax revenue (Sindhu). This means that from the low amounted of people counted to be recorded for taxation; the number is further reduced by the lack of efficiency in administration. Corruption also plays an important role to make the tragic situation of low tax revenue generation, egregious. The TIP (Transparency International Pakistan) indicated a...

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Taxation

today the rate of chronic diseases have skyrocketed, we need to come up with a solution to make healthier food available to the population. Although junk good producers may find that the tax is unfair. The overall result of taxation is to improve the health of our nation. If taxation of fast food was a reality today it will ultimately motivate producers and sellers to improve their products and provide the consumers with better options. The increased percent of obesity amongst Americans is alarming...

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Taxation

Taxation should be equal According the definition taxes are the sum of money demanded by a government for its support or for specific facilities. The government demands money from everyone not just some one but there are some who don’t seem to go pay the fair amount as everyone else. Taxation has also been a big part with the current recession. Our government is investing in defense, using out money when more should go into social programs. Cuts have been made in different programs because of...

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Taxation

790 Basic rate: 20% £0 - £35,000 £0-£34,370 £0-£32,010 Higher rate: 40% £35,001 - £150,000 £34,371-£150,000 £32,011- £150,000 Additional rate: 50% Over £150,000 Over £150,000 N/A 45% from 6 April 2013 N/A N/A Over £150,000 This taxation policy also creates tension and resentment of individuals on government welfare payroll. Those who work for their money are becoming more frustrated with the individuals that are living off the government. The working individuals have good reason...

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Progressive Taxation

Progressive Taxation Saj October 23, 2012 The Common Sense Party supports a light progressive taxation tax plan which gives low income and middle class earners a chance to save more money to spend on their bills and necessities. We believe that higher income individual earners have more money to spend on bills and necessities with a larger sum left over for savings than a low income earner or a middle class earner. However we do not believe in overtaxing high income earners to the point...

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presumptive taxation

Presumptive Taxation A presumptive or imputed tax is generally a proxy for the standard tax. It is applied when the tax base is too small or hard to verify, due to limited administrative resources, or improper accounting practices. According to a definition by Ahmed and Stern (1991), “The term presumptive taxation covers a number of procedures under which the ‘desired’ base for taxation (direct or indirect) is not itself measured, but is inferred from some simple indicators which are more easily...

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Taxation In The Philippines

Karen Joy Madrio Juan January 24, 2015 Grade 9 – Davao Sir Daryl D. Dela Cruz Business Math: ASSIGNMENT # 1 Taxation in the Philippines Taxation It is the inherent power by which the sovereign state imposes financial burden upon persons and property as a means of raising revenues in order to defray the necessary expenses of the government It is the imposition of financial charges or other levies , upon a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity) by a state such that failure to pay...

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Progressive Taxation

Progressive taxation rates are unethical and need to be changed. The media likes to say the rich need to pay their fair share and I will show that if everyone paid the same percentage of their income without all the loopholes the current tax system has the government would be better off. This is an ethical issue that needs to be addressed by our current and future leaders to help eliminate the extraordinary amount of debt our country currently has to reimburse. Utilitarianism is that an action...

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NOTES IN TAXATION

NOTES IN TAXATION Taxation- process or means by which the sovereign, through its lawmaking body, raises income to defray necessary expenses of the government; power of the State, inherent in sovereignty -indispensable and inevitable price for civilized society, without taxes, government would be paralyzed. Taxes- lifeblood of the government and their prompt and certain availability are an imperious need. Objectives of Taxation: Shifting wealth from the rich to the poor Maintaining...

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Double Taxation

Introduction Double taxation arises when an individual or business acquiring income in a foreign country is required to pay taxes on that income in both the foreign country as well as the country of origin. For example, an American company operating in a developing country, in the absence of a tax treaty between the two countries may have to pay a withholding tax to the government of the developing country, as well as corporation tax to the United States government (Howard, 2001, p. 259). The...

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Canons of Taxation

Canons/Principles of Taxation By Adam Smith:   Adam smith, the father of modem political economy, has laid down four principles or cannons of taxation in his famous book "Wealth of Nations". These principles are still considered to be the starting point of sound public finance. Adam Smith's celebrated cannons of taxation are:   (1) Cannon of equality or ability, (2) Cannon of certainty, (3) Cannon of convenience, and  (4) Cannon of economy.   (1) Canon of equality or ability: Canon of equality...

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Taxation and the Internet

Taxation and the Internet With the rising popularity of online shopping, many state governments are growing more and more concerned with the lack of proper law governing taxation. A typical, traditional purchase requires payment of state sales tax at the point of sale but with online purchasing this location is nonexistent. Since buyers and sellers are located anywhere in the world is becoming increasingly harder to establish law requiring the payment of sales tax. Regardless, many states are...

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Taxation

fortunes and purposes, which the government wanted the revenue sharing formula to serve. The revenues are raised mainly through taxation to finance government expenditure and to influence other activities in the economy. A tax is a compulsory levy imposed on individuals, firms, commodities and communities by the government. But the feature of compulsory levy inherent in taxation is usually undermined because people dislike the civic responsibility that the payment of tax connotes. In Nigeria, people,...

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Zimbabwe Taxation

Question Write an analysis of the developments of the taxation system in Zimbabwe from pre to post colonial Zimbabwe (25) The tax system currently enforced in Zimbabwe under the authority of the Income tax Act Chap 23.06 with Acts like the Capital Gains Act Chap 23.01, Finance Act Chap 23.04 and the Excise duties Act as complimentary. The system evolved from traditional ideologies perpetuated...

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Taxation in the Philippines

I.                   Introduction to the tax systemThe laws governing taxation in the Philippines are contained within the National Internal Revenue Code.  This code underwent substantial revision with passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1997.  This law took effect on January 1, 1998.Taxation is  administered  through the Bureau of Internal Revenue which comes under the Department of Finance.  The chief executive of the Bureau of Internal Revenue is the          Commissioner who has exclusive and original...

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Explaination of Fiscal Policy, Government Expenses & Taxation

Foundation (refer to references at last page for web page) indicates that 2001 tax cuts have boosted both consumer spending and as a result, real GDP growth. There are some advantages of taxation in developing the economic. I understand that if there are no taxes, then government will not earn any income from taxation and civilians do not spend any time worrying about how to evade taxes. Government tax revenue does not necessarily increase as the tax rate increase. Working people will decide to work...

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Income Taxation

Sta. Maria, Oel Angel BSBA – Marketing III February 15, 2014 Law in Income Taxation Mrs. Gosom Business Income Tax – A tax that governments impose on financial income generated by all entities within their jurisdiction. By law, businesses and individuals must file an income tax return every year to determine whether they owe any taxes or are eligible for a tax refund. Income tax is a key source of funds that the government uses to fund its activities and serve the public. ...

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Hk Taxation

United International College Hong Kong Taxation Assignment 1 Answer the following questions. 25 marks each. 1. David’s salaries tax for year of assessment 2010/11 were due as follows: 1st instalment $10,500 due on 2 January 2012 2nd instalment $4,000 due on 4 April 2012. However David failed to pay the 1st instalment by the end of January 2012. What actions will be taken by Inland Revenue Department to recover the tax from David? Ans. When the tax was overdue after...

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Taxation in Malaysia

Income Tax Ordinance 1947 was subsequently replaced by the Income Tax Act (ITA) 1967, came into effect on 1 January 1968. This happen in accordance to the formation of Malaysia in 1963. The Income Tax Act 1967 consolidated the three laws of income taxation existing before formation of Malaysia, which include Income Tax Ordinance 1947 (Peninsular Malaysia), Sabah Income Tax Ordinance 1956 (Sabah), and Sarawak Inland Revenue Ordinance 1963 (Sarawak). Under the ITA, income that subject to tax includes...

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Taxation and Home Tab

Aspen Falls Restaurants Project Description: In this project, you will modify a workbook to track taxes generated by restaurants in the Aspen Falls area. To complete the project, you will enter and format data, create formulas and functions, create and format a pie chart and a clustered column chart, apply conditional formatting, use Find and Replace to edit data, and finally create page footers. Instructions: For the purpose of grading the project you are required to perform the following...

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Course Outline - Taxation[1]

OUTLINE-TAXATION Course Objective: After successful completion of the course, students are expected to be able to: 1. understand the role of taxation in overall economic development of an economy 2. understand the place of taxation in overall fiscal policy of government 3. understand relevant provisions of the personal and corporate taxation rules in Bangladesh 4. independently assess the tax liabilities of personal and corporate entities   Course Description: Taxation laws by...

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Taxation Past Paper Question

and answer all questions. Question 1 a) Define the term ‘taxation’. (2m) b) Distinguish between direct and indirect taxes. (4m) c) List two (2) examples of direct tax and briefly describe each (4m) d) List two (2) examples of indirect tax and briefly describe each (4m) e) Distinguish among the different forms of tax giving example. (6m) Question 2 Discuss three (3) ways in which revenue earned from taxation is utilized by the government in your country. (6m) Property...

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International Taxation

International taxation International taxation is the study or determination of tax on a person or business subject to the tax laws of different countries or the international aspects of an individual country's tax laws. Governments usually limit the scope of their income taxation in some manner territorially or provide for offsets to taxation relating to extraterritorial income. Many governments tax individuals and/or enterprises on income. Such systems of taxation vary widely, and there are no...

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Assignment 1 Taxation

 HI5028 TAXATION INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT 1 TABLE OF CONTENT QUESTION 1 3 FACTS 3 RELEVANT RULE/LAW 3 QUESTION 2 7 RELEVANT RULE/ APPLICATION 7 CONCLUSION 9 REFERENCES 10 QUESTION 1 Janet (taxpayer) residing in Australia is named as the sole beneficiary of a property (1.85 hectares) with a large homestead as a result of the death of a relative on 7/10/2010. The property is not used for commercial purposes and at the date of death, the property was valued at $1.45million. Settlement took place...

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Double Taxation Law in India

SECTION 90 OF INCOME TAX 73 India has comprehensive Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAA ) with 79 countries. This means that there are agreed rates of tax and jurisdiction on specified types of income arising in a country to a tax resident of another country. Under the Income Tax Act 1961 of India, there are two provisions, Section 90 and Section 91, which provide specific relief to taxpayers to save them from double taxation. Section 90 is for taxpayers who have paid the tax to a country...

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Unfair Taxation

Unfair Taxation: Why Should the Few Support the Many? Ricky Wiggins Strayer University Professor Priscilla Patten English 215 Research and Writing 5 May 2012 Unfair Taxation In the economy today a large number of Americans do not pay Federal Income Tax. This is not fair to the citizens who are required by law to pay taxes. Why should only half of the country bear the burden of paying taxes to support the United States? Every person living in America needs to stand up, take responsibility...

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Australian Taxation system analysis

definition of tax in the Webster's Dictionary--"...a compulsory payment of a percentage of income, property value, sales price, etc. for the support of a government". In theory the collection of taxation should be fair, simple, efficient and neutral. Australia inherited a convoluted and complex taxation structure from its British Colonial past. Australia's economy has become more dynamic, efficient and productive over recent decades. However, the tax system has only adapted slowly to these changes...

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E-Commerce and Taxation

E-COMMERCE AND TAXATION Thousands of businesses are selling goods and services through electronic commerce, including the Web and private electronic networks. Selling through electronic commerce is a rapidly growing channel for sales to both retail consumers and businesses. Since about one-quarter of all state and local revenue comes from sales, use, and gross receipts taxes, the state and local governments are eager to avoid losing any tax revenue to electronic commerce. Traditional...

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Taxation Case Study

Taxation Task one (A)(i) Mice Ltd property business profit for the year 31 March 2010 is £20,550 Period ended Year ended Year ended 31 March 31 March 31 March 2007 2008 2009 £ £ £ Trading profit 83,200 24,700 51,200 Property business profit 2,800 7,100 12,200 Gift aid donations (1,000) (1,500) – (ii) The company profits at the period 31march 2007 is £65,000. Also the company profits at 31 March 2008, is £24800 for nine month with...

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Interest Groups in Taxation

believe in flat taxation. The biggest policy that Americans for Tax Reform want the tax code to be broken down to limit government power over certain individuals and to make the system equal for all. This interest group has been funded by most notably Microsoft and Time Warner. They are also funded by the general public in the form of anonymous donations, which is similar to another interest group called Americans for Fair Taxation. The next interest group is Americans for Fair Taxation. This interest...

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Gas Taxation: the Necessary Evil

Everyone notices it. They struggle with it, fight to survive through it, and when push comes to shove, they end up paying it anyways. It is gas taxation. Taxes on gas hit wallets hard and drain bank accounts. The federal gas tax was a mere penny per gallon and first came into effect in 1932 as a temporary charge. Nine years later, the gas tax became permanent through the Revenue Act of 1941 in order to help fund the war effort and increased by half a cent per gallon. In 1959, President Eisenhower...

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Federal Taxation Week 6

Federal Taxation 2/10/2013 Questions: 21-2, 21-13, & 21-26 Problems: 21-53 & 21-63 Homework Week Six 21-2. What are the eligibility requirements that a corporation must meet in order to qualify under Subchapter S? Answer: In order to qualify under Subchapter S, a corporation must be a small business corporation. The following additional requirements must be met in order to be a small business corporation: 1. Must be a domestic corporation 2. Must have no more than 100 shareholders ...

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BC 405 Business Taxation

Model Paper GOVERNMENT COLLEGE UNIVERSITY, FAISALABAD QUESTION PAPER FOR EXTERNAL EXAMINATION B.Com. Part 2nd Course Code: BC-405 Annual -2012 Course Title: Business Taxation Time Allowed: 03:00 Hours Maximum Marks: 100 Roll No.………………. Pass Marks: 40% ________________________________________________________________ Note: marks Q. No.1 2001. Attempt any five questions including Q#8, which is compulsory. All questions carry equal Define and explain the following terms with reference to Income...

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Taxation

TAXATION LAW I. General Principles POWER OF TAXATION TAXATION – power by which the sovereign through its law-making body raises revenue to defray the necessary expenses of government from among those who in some measure are privileged to enjoy its benefits and must bear its burdens. Two Fold Nature of the Power of Taxation 1. It is an inherent attribute of sovereignty 2. It is legislative in character Extent of Taxing Power Subject to constitutional and inherent restrictions...

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Philippine Local Government Taxation

Philippine Local Government Taxation Local government units, by virtue of the 1987 Constitution and the Local Government Code of 1991, otherwise known as Republic Act 7160 have been given the power to raise certain taxes. Power to Create Sources of Revenue (Sec. 129) • Each local government unit (LGU) has thepower to create its own sources of revenue and to levy taxes, fees, and charges • The grant of power to create sources of revenue is consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy ...

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Nestle

have to pay fines. Nestle is trying to met all the standard laws which are set by the government. For example Health and Safety Act, Disability Act but unfortunately Nestle break the law. Government laws and regulation in accounting standards, taxation requirements, including tax rate changes, new tax laws and revised tax law interpretations are highly influenced on Nestle business. Nestle is also very keen about stability of government stability in countries where they are trying to get in...

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LEGAL ISSUES ON FOREIGN INVESTMENTS IN INDIA

language, strong work-force and education system, growing urban class, strong information technology infrastructure and investment favorable policy of the government. There are certain issues with the taxation policy. However they are expected to be eradicated after the introduction of the proposed new taxation policy discussed below. Price: The purchase or sale price of any transaction in Indian securities between a resident Indian and a foreign investor is regulated by prescribed pricing guidelines which...

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Van Den Berghs Ltd V Clark

capital assets | REFERENCES Bibliography Chong, K. F. (2010). Advanced Malaysia Taxation (12 ed.). Kuala Lumpur: InfoWorld. Chong, K. F. (2003). Compensation in Connection With Business Receipts-An Analysis of the Malaysian Experience. Malayan Law Journal , 30. Chong, K. F. (2006). Contemporary Issues on Income Tax and Real Property Gains Tax. ACCA Tax Publication , 38. Chong, K. F. (2010). Malaysian Taxation (16 ed.). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: InfoWorld. Flynn, M. (1990). Distinguising between...

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Taxation

section as arbitrary amounting to class legislation, oppressive and capricious in character. In this case, there is a transgression of both the equal protection and due process clauses of the constitution as well as of the rule requiring uniformity in taxation. Pepsi vs. Municipality of Tanauan, 69 SCRA 460 Plaintiff-appellant Pepsi-Cola commenced a complaint with preliminary injunction to declare Section 2 of Republic Act No. 2264, otherwise known as the Local Autonomy Act, unconstitutional...

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Review notes for taxation

loss is claimed/ both the year debt incurred and year debt written off Same business test [165-123]: Carrying on the same business immediately before the majority change in ownership occurred in the year of claim (125-126) Calculation of Taxation- Individual Taxpayers 1. Reportable Fringe Benefit(RFB)not assessable to employees but take into account in calculation of a) Medicare levy surcharge; b) Family Tax Benefit; c) HELP; d) some tax offsets 2. (Reportable Employer Superannuation Contributions)RESCis...

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The Uk Tax System.

The UK taxation system relevant to the typical tax paying resident within the UK consists of Income tax, Corporation tax and Capital Gains tax. In the past tax payers have tried to ‘evade’ paying tax, with some ludicrous plans to keep their own personal taxes to a minimum, if not have a tax liability in the negative. This is partly why the UK Government has had to implement tax laws to maintain and clarify the structure of the taxation system within its policies. The system relies on a number of...

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Junk Food Tax

England Journal of Medicine (Kelly D. Brownell, Ph.D., 2009), the author suggested that through taxing of sugary food, the decrease in consumption could be more than 10% which indicates that citizens may tend to buy less unhealthy junk food after taxation. The reason for this phenomenon is that the change in price of food will directly affect our preference of consumption. When the price of junk food becomes higher, people will tend to buy less. If people buy less junk food, there should be lower...

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Week 204 20Assignment 203 1

income, the amount of income and more importantly due to the relevant tax legislations. In America, the government has established rates of taxation for various income brackets considering factors such as marital status, physical impairment and economic factors such as the amount of disposable income (Urban Institute, 2010). Usually, the government imposes taxation with various considerations in mind. In particular, the government considers the level of income. As such, most revenue collection authorities...

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IGCSE PAPER

regressive taxes [3] 参考答案: (a) 3 marks for each pair. (Examples of each pair, 1 mark.) [6] 考生分析: In part (i), most candidates were able to distinguish between direct and indirect taxation in terms of the former being a tax on income and the latter a tax on expenditure. Appropriate examples of the two types of taxation were given, such as income tax as an example of a direct tax and value added tax (or any other kind of sales tax) as an example of an indirect tax. A few candidates,unfortunately,...

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Distribution of Income

wealth. The burden of a direct tax cannot be shifted onto another entity. Indirect taxes include taxes on goods and on expenditures. The burden of an indirect tax can be shifted onto a different entity. Progressive, proportional and regressive taxation The marginal tax rate is the percentage taken by the government on the last pound earned. It is the extra tax paid as a result of an extra pound earned. The average tax rates it the ratio of the tax collected over income earned or more generally...

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Political Conflict between the Main British Political Parties: Future of Economic Policy

major policy area where there is both consensus and conflict is the area of taxation. The general consensus between the main parties is to lower taxes – this would boost consumer spending which would help stimulate the economy. In regards to income tax, both parties favour a two-tier taxation system, with the progressive reduction of the taxes of the lower tier. Despite these similarities between Labour and Conservative taxation policy, there are also some significant differences. The Conservatives have...

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Economics Consumption

Discuss the likely effectiveness of two methods, including taxation, that are available to the government seeking to reduce the consumption of demerit goods. Taxation is a payment that many people pay to the government. This is money from the producers and the consumers. It is one of the best solutions for lowering the consumption of demerit goods. Taxation is paid by consumers and producers for things like the NHS and also council homes and education. There are many methods available to the government...

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ACC 455 Week 2 Individual Assignment Problem Set

This paperwork ACC 455 Week 2 Individual Assignment Problem Set includes solution of these exercises: C: 2-6 C: 2-40 C: 2-45 Business - Accounting Complete the problems found in Ch. 2 of Prentice Hall’s Federal Taxation 2010: Corporations . C:2-3 Black LLC C:2-54 Bear Corporation C:2-55 Wildcat Corporation C:2-56 Tax Strategy for Wildcat Corporation Read the scenario and respond to the questions. Support your answers with calculations, as...

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tax matters

government to raise revenue, levied on income or property, on the prices of goods and services, etc. and to levy a tax on (persons, companies, etc.)” (Clinton Alley, 2008). there are several reasons can explain the existence of tax: The main function of taxation is the fiscal one. It is through fiscality that taxes play their role in the formation of the country budget necessary for the realization of national programs. The function of regeneration. By taxing the utilization of natural resources, roads...

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Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement

summarized the need for Tax Treaties beautifully- it is desirable to clarify, standardize and confirm fiscal situation of taxpayer who are engaged in business activities across multiple nations by application of common solutions in cases of Double Taxation.  Solutions such as- Laying down rules for division of revenue b/w contracting countries, exemptions from certain incomes in either country reducing applicable tax rates on certain incomes in either country. DTAA's advantage from a Tax Payers...

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Cigarette Taxes

Cigarette Taxes Cigarette taxation has appeared to be a disputable issue throughout American history. The beginnings of cigarette taxation can be traced back to the late 1700s when Alexander Hamilton, the secretary of the treasury, introduced the first federal excise tax on tobacco products. The government places taxes on cigarettes to reduce the number of smokers and to increase revenue. A cigarette tax, like any other tax, increases the amount of revenue the government can spend on social programs...

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Paper on Economics

government consumption and investment but excludes transfer payments made by a state.  By imposing taxes the government receives revenue from the population. Taxes come in many varieties and serve different specific purposes, but the key concept is that taxation is a transfer of assets from the people to the government. . There are two main types of fiscal policy, expansionary fiscal policy and contractionary fiscal policy. Expansionary fiscal policy is designed to stimulate the economy during or in anticipation...

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Gambling: A Cash Cow for Provincial Government

government can make good use of the taxation in the gambling business. The government can use the fiscal policy. The first half of the policy involves taxation. The government can important the taxation of the casino and lotteries and other forms of the gambling. This is a useful way to strengthen the power of the government. It is also a good way to limited people to go to casino because of the high taxation. Besides that , the government can use the taxation to help move the economy when it is...

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Taxation

to the local go e e ts. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION Pepsi Cola v. Municipality of Tanauan: Legislati e powers may be delegated to local governments in respect of matters of local concern. This is sanctioned by immemorial practice. By necessary implication, the legislative power to create political corporations for purposes of local self-government carries with it the power to confer on such local governmental agencies the power to ta . A. Taxation a. Definition i. It is the power by which the...

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Taxation

Commissioner of Inland Revenue v Penny [2010] NZCA 231; [2010] 3 NZLR 360; (2010) 24 NZTC 24,287 (CA); Penny and Hooper v Commissioner of Inland Revenue [2009] 3 NZLR 523; (2009) 24 NZTC 23, 406 (HC) [CB, Chapter 15]. Newton v Federal Commissioner of Taxation [1958] AC 450 (PC). Application: The arrangement and its tax effect According to s YA1, arrangement can be an agreement, contract, plan, or understanding, whatever enforceable or unenforceable, and it is carried into effect by all steps and...

Free Income tax, Progressive tax, Tax 3020  Words | 10  Pages

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