"Hippocampus" Essays and Research Papers

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Psy/270 Depression Paper

depression, along with some tentative theories about chemical deficiencies within neurons. The brain anatomy factors beginning to be seen as influencing unipolar depression are the dysfunction of brain circuits involving the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and Brodmann Area 25. First of the psychological factors influencing unipolar depression is that influenced by Freud and Abraham: it occurs when relationships leave an individual feeling unsafe and insecure. Next, the dwindling of positive...

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Should MDMA be used in psychotherapy to treat PTSD?

in PFC may mean enhanced inhibition of fear responses from the amygdala (Patel et al., 2012).Norepinephrine is also involved in consolidation and retrieval of threatening memories (Myers & Davis, 2006), mainly through the amygdala’s link to the hippocampus (Ravindran & Stein, 2009), potentially enhancing extinction of learned fear associations (Oehen et al, 2012). Empirical data from neuroimaging studies shows that patients with PTSD consistently exhibit increased activity in the amygdala (Pitman...

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A paper on Stress

As noted in the reading even the most recent and sophisticated of our arousal system is ill equipped to handle the daily levels of stress we live with. Living with this unresolved activation can cause “atrophy in a part of the brain called the hippocampus” (Reader, pp. 9) which affects memory. Continued exposure to the chemical soup that stress releases can impact our immune system, and make us susceptible to “upper respiratory infections” (Reader, pp.9) and it can lead to weight gain, heart problems...

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How a Human Brain Works in Saving New Words

input is converted to nervous impulses. They travel to extraction and sorting stations like the thalamus, located in the middle of the brain. In intentional behavior, a multisensory convergence takes place and the “map” is quickly formed in the hippocampus. From there, signals are distributed to specific areas of the brain. Once this input is received, each brain cell acts as atiny electrical battery. It’s powered by the difference in concentration of sodium and potassium ions across a cell membrane...

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Haven Answers

occasion for women B 5 or more drinking on an occasion for men C neither a or b ->D both a and b 19: Which part(s) of the brain, when impaired by alcohol, play an important role in learning: A nucleus accumbens B hypothalamus ->C hippocampus D all of the above 20: Which of the following is affected by alcohol consumption: A decision-making and judgment B motivation and attention C learning and memory ->D all of the above Page 2, Questions 20-30: ------------------------...

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Recognizing Arguments

of the library. CONCLUSION: Of course, I am assuming that all the books are properly shelved at this time. “Of course” is a key word indicating the claim is the conclusion. 3. “After a year, brain scans showed that among the walkers, the hippocampus had increased in volume by about 2 percent on average; in the others, it had declined by about 1.4 percent. Since such a decline is normal in older adults, ’a 2 percent increase is fairly significant,’ said the lead author, Kirk Erickson, a psychologist...

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Keep Drinking Age at 21

and abuse prior to this age not only expose drinkers to negative consequences because of alcohol-influenced actions, but also can permanently affect their brain functions, bone density, and reproductive systems. An MRI test showed that the hippocampus, a part of the brain responsible for forming new memories, was noticeably smaller in youth who have used alcohol than in those who have not. In addition, the abuse of alcohol during adolescent years also inhibits the change of the "myelination...

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Marijuana vs. Tobacco

the first state to follow this trend. The effects of marijuana are very similar to those of tobacco. Unlike tobacco, cannabis contains THC, which is the addictive component that changes the way sensory information from the brain gets into the hippocampus. This component of the brain’s limbic system is crucial for learning, memory, and behavioral functions. Effects on the lungs are similar yet they can be up to five times greater than among tobacco smokers. When a person smokes marijuana, they inhale...

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

a question upon if the amygdala is already over reactive in itself or it could naturally be over reactive responding to trauma (Harvard Women's Health Watch, 2005). With the help of imaging techniques and its imaging studies, it shows that the hippocampus and the anterior cingulated cortex found to be smaller in PTSD. The two areas of the brain which help maintain the amygdala in check seem to have trouble functioning properly in people with PSTD (Harvard Women's Health Watch, 2005). Another thought...

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Manifestations of Dementia

inflammatory changes, lipid abnormalities and aging (Copstead, 2010). Thirdly, the brain is losing connectivity between nerve cells and cells are dying which results in permanent brain damage. Other changes in the brain include shrinking of the hippocampus and cortex. AD also shows an increase in ventricles. The progression of the damage in the AD brain is predictable. According to the Alzheimer’s research center, the plaques and tangles spread through the cortex in a predictable fashion (Common...

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