"Crystal" Essays and Research Papers

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PIEZOELECTRICITY AND APPLICATIONS Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials such as crystals and certain ceramics, to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress or heat. If the piezo crystals are not short-circuited, the applied charge induces a voltage across the material. The word Piezo is derived from the Greek “Piezein”, which means to squeeze or press. The piezo material exhibits both “Direct piezo electric effect” as well as ‘Converse piezo electric...

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Rock Candy Crystals

Crystals are formed when atoms line up in patterns and solidify. There are crystals everywhere — in the form of salt, sugar, sand, diamonds, quartz, and many more! To make crystals, you need to make a very special kind of solution called a supersaturated solid solution. Here’s what that means: if you add salt by the spoonful to a cup of water, you’ll reach a point where the salt doesn’t disappear (dissolve) anymore and forms a lump at the bottom of the glass. The point at which it begins...

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How to Make Crystal Needles

Crystal Needles: Crystal Needles are a great introduction to crystal growing. You can have some delicate, really cool crystals going within three hours time! Ingredients: •a cup or small bowl •1/2 cup Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) •1/2 cup hot tap water •(optional) a drop of food coloring Directions: 1.Add the ingredients together in your bowl or cup. 2.Stir the solution until all the salt is dissolved. There may be some crystals still at the bottom, but that's ok. 3.Place the cup...

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liquid crystals

quite solid, neither is it a liquid. Liquid crystals are another important intermediate phase which exhibits features from both the solid and the fluid state. Liquid crystals have the ordering properties of solids but they flow like liquids. Liquid crystalline materials have been observed for over a century but were not recognized as such until 1880s. In 1888, Friedrich Reinitzer (picture) is credited for the first systematic description of the liquid crystal phase and reported his observations when...

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Acetaminophen: Crystal and Crude Product

resulted in a much lighter coloration than the crude acetaminophen. Purified acetaminophen was slightly light tan/pink nearly white, whereas crude acetaminophen was light brown. After crystallization of acetaminophen, 0.028g of whiter, shiny, fine crystals resulted with no apparent odor. Slightly less than half of product was lost from 0.060g purified acetaminophen that was crystallized and about 0.122g was lost from the original 0.150g of p-aminophenol started with. The melting point range of the...

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liquid crystals

 LIQUID CRYSTALS Introduction What are Liquid crystals ? Its History & Discovery Any of various liquids in which molecules are regularly arrayed like a solid crystal along one or two dimensions, but are free in the other dimensions as with typical liquids. Liquid crystals often display unusual and often manipulable optical properties such as anisotropic scattering. They can be divided into two classes, Thermo tropic(nematic, chiral nematic, and smectic.) and Lyotropic. Transitions to...

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The Dark Crystal

Jett Theology 22 February 2013 The Dark Crystal The Dark Crystal is an allegorical movie that shows the relationship of good and evil in not only the bible but also the current world. In this movie Jen, the supposed last of the Gelflings, is sent on a quest to repair the dark crystal insuring that Skeksis don’t rule their world forever. Upon his fulfillment of the prophecy the dark and light (good and evil) are united as one being. The Dark Crystal has many components that lead the audience...

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Water temperature effects on sugar

as sugar cubes or crystals, the temperature of the water, and the concentration of the solution. Learning that these factors contribute to the rate of dissolving a solute, I hypothesize that the increase in water temperature will decrease the dissolving time of the sugar cube and sugar crystal. For this experiment the temperature of the water represents the independent variable. The dependent variable is represented by the dissolving time of the sugar cube and sugar crystal. The amounts of water...

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Crazy Crystal Creations: How to Grow the Best and the Largest Crystals Materials and Equipment * Lab notebook * Large bowl * Ice, enough to fill large bowl at least three times * Water * Thermometer * String * Scissors * Pencils (3) * Identical jars or large drinking glasses (3) * Pot with a lid * Borax (also called 20-Mule Team household cleaner); * Tablespoon * Plastic wrap, wax paper, or aluminum foil * Gloves, latex or similar style exam...

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are forces that act between the particles. METHODOLOGY Materials and Apparatus CuSO4 (size of a rice grain) Phenolphthalein indicator Ammonia solution (1 M NH3) Iodine crystals (I2) Graduated cylinder Procedure: Part 1 Diffusivity 1. Place a small amount of iodine in a beaker. Cover the beaker with a watch glass. Place a wet tissue paper on top of the watch glass. Then put it inside of the fume wood...

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