"Common Law" Essays and Research Papers

Common Law

The Development of Common Law and Equity Common Law has been functioning in England since the 1250’s, two centuries after William the Conqueror defeated Earl Harold Godwinson in the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became King. It was then in 1066 that Law began to be standardised. There were, however, problems with the Common Law system and people were becoming dissatisfied with the remedies distributed by the Court. As a result, the Court of Chancery was established and could provide whatever...

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Common Law

Common Law Assignment Answer 1: There is no enforceable contract between Joanna and Rita because under Contract Law it is stated that the first requirement for any valid contract to become existent is an agreement that contains the elements of “offer” and an “acceptance”. In the case provided, Joanna did put forth an offer for Rita who then laid a condition of accepting the offer, therefore a counter-offer; also Rita had not yet accepted the offer completely. She stated in her response, that...

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company law

public2.In 1862 formation of a company required seven or more subscribers, where now company may run with one director3.The Companies Act 2006 provides that remedies are available for the breach of directors duties, remain case stated law distinct from statute law and many cases interpreting provision of past Companies Act remain relevant today. There are some advantage and disadvantage of incorporation. A primary advantage is limited liability. This provides protection for owners to their personal...

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Evolution of Law

Evolution of Law The government our nation has established today has come a long way from its roots. Starting with the Napoleonic Code and eventually ending with the Ratified Constitution of the United States. Rome came to England bringing the Roman Code, thus law begins. The Roman Code was a rigid code that in reality did not change much. It required ample detail and was difficult to understand at times. For example, if there where five different murders all using five different colored knives...

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Sources of Common Law

Sources of common law I. Sources of the Common Law A. Court Decisions The principal source of positive law in the common law system is customary law. The common law system has some analogies to French medieval law: trial by jury, the binding nature of precedent. B. Statutes and treaties Statutes and treaties are the other source of law in the anglo-saxon world. However to be enforced even statutes and treaties must be ultimately interpreted by judges. Statutes are however controlling; that...

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Different Types of Mistakes in Contract Law

“A common mistake, even on a most fundamental matter, does not make a contract void at law; but it makes it voidable in equity.” To what extent does this statement represent the law after Great Peace Shipping Ltd. V Tsavliris, The Great Peace (2002)? A mistake is an erroneous belief held by one or more contracting parties at the time of entering the contract, as to whether certain details pertaining to the contract were true. Mistakes can be classified in three categories; common, mutual, or...

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Workplace Law

Under the common law act, employers should use fair procedures when terminating employees. As that, replacing employees is expensive and claims for unfair or unlawful dismissal can be costly and time consuming. Employers are to bridge employee financially until she has had a reasonable time to find a new job. A contract that provides for a worker’s service is a terminable agreement for the use of that worker’s talents for a period of time and with the consent of the work. The common law can operate...

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Workplace law

on regards on the verbal promise, it is a fact that negotiations with existing employees on the variation of the employment contract hold the characteristics of trading and commerce. Rule of the Law There are is an importance to proof whether or not Johnny is an employee in the eyes of the common law, a test will be used in courts to proof it; in particular, the multi factor test, (Performing Right Society v Mitchell and Booker (Palais de Danse) Ltd (1924)). What facts will a multi factor test...

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Common Law and Equity

Outline the development of common law and equity. A The Law in England didn't come about all at once, but has developed over the centuries. There are 5 different sources of law: Customs, Judicial decision, Acts of Parliament, Delegated Legislation and, most recently, European Law. However, new law is still being created today. The law as we know it today all started in 1066, when William the Conqueror invaded England. He found a country with no single system of law, just sets of customary rules...

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Business Law

Dustin Brown Student ID# 202011 BBA 3210, Business Law Research Project: Analyzing a Contract August 22, 2012 “Analyzing a Contract” Introduction I have identified a basic contract that is used when a provider and client have agreed to a specific service and payment for service (Savetz, 2012). The contract is at the end of this paper. In my scenario, the Client has requested the Provider to complete a concrete pad in the back yard of his new home. I will analyze this contract and identify...

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law of investment

Introduction We are part of a non-profitable organization. With a team of 4 lawyer volunteering law advice and services to the community for free. In this case we are to provide Chalice with our advice on what are the chargers he can look into if he decided to take it to the court or alternatively settle by other resolution. Duty of care with Negligence “Negligence as an important element in law of tort requires more than mere lack of care”. A claimant who wishes to sue in negligence must show: ...

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The Reception of English Law in Malaysia.

The Reception of English Law In Malaysia. Introduction Malaysian legal history has been determined by events spanning a period of some six hundred years. Of these, three major periods were largely responsible for shaping the current Malaysia system. The first was the founding of the Malacca Sultanate at the beginning of the 15th century; second was the spread of Islam in the indigenous culture; and finally, and perhaps the most significant in modern Malaysia, was British colonial rule which brought...

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Common Law and Equity

Equity has brought benefits to many litigants who would otherwise have been severely disadvantaged by the common law. Discuss, with reference to decided cases. William the Conqueror found England with no single system of law common to the whole country. The law was mainly sets of customary rules which differed from area to area. For example, in one area you could get away with stealing, in another it would be seen as crime. There was no such thing as ‘ The English Legal System” until William’s...

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Common Law and Its Types

Common Law Law developed through conclusions of courts and similar committees by the judges is known as common law, it is also known as case law. Common law binds upcoming decisions and it is the body of practice. Common law delivers compensation in monetarist value of the damages due to violation of contract and approves the legal owner of the property. Certain amount of money presented as compensation by a court for a breach or trot of agreement is known as damages, it is also famous as lump...

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common law system and ideology

Legal System of HK Seminar 2: Common Law System and Ideology (9/9/13) Substantive justice VS procedural justice Influence of external forces on legal system, they interact in the law making processes and affect what is morally right or wrong, law is not the only tool responsible for maintain social order, people have private life and other systems (social control, culture, religions…) to guide people’s life and behaviours LAW: Certainty, predictability, there should be an authorities to...

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Common Law Exam

university, graduate from an accredited law school, take and pass a state bar examination, and pass an extensive background investigation in order to: Student Answer: Be directly regulated Obtain a license to practice law Be indirectly regulated All of the above Points Received: 5 of 5 Comments: 7. Question : Attorney Chapman assigns paralegal Hughes a complex brief, tells her to research the law, prepare the brief, proofread it, and...

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Law and Social Psychology

This paper discusses law and how it applies to Social Psychology. It will discuss the three stages during a jury trial: the jury selection, the courtroom drama, and the jury deliberation. The next application we are going to look at is the post trial, where sentencing and prison come into play. The last application we are going to look at is justice inside and outside of the courtroom. Everyone accused of a crime in the United States has the right to a trial by an impartial jury. Jury selection...

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Case Law Analysis

 Case Law Analysis – Tort Laws Cornelius C. Chase Capella University BUS3021 – Fundamentals of Business Law Professor Cynthia Geppert Abstract In a defamation action brought by plaintiff-terminated employee, Hoeper, against defendant-airline, Air Wisconsin Airlines Corp, for statements made to the Transportation Security Administration regarding their concerns involving the location of plaintiff's weapon and his stability upon his termination, judgment for plaintiff is reversed and remanded, where:...

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Distingtion Between Equity and Common Law

UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW LAW OF EQUITY ASSIGNMENT IAN NDUNGU WAWERU DLAW/112/00101 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN EQUITY AND COMMON LAW LECTURER: MARK WAGIA Common law, defined by Oxford Dictionary, is law that is derived from custom and judicial precedent instead of statutes. Equity, on the other hand, is a branch of law, which developed alongside common law, and is focused on fairness and justice. But aside from their descriptions, there are other differences between common law and equity. ...

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Common Law

The term "common law" originally derives from the 1150s and 1160s, when Henry II of England established the secular English tribunals. The "common law" was the law that emerged as "common" throughout the realm (as distinct from the various legal codes that preceded it, such as Mercian law, the Danelaw and the law of Wessex)[43] as the king's judges followed each other's decisions to create a unified common law throughout England. The doctrine of precedent developed during the 12th and 13th centuries...

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Common Law and Civil Law

between the role of criminal law and civil law in relation to the legal system and analyse the purpose of the law. Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It might be defined as the body of rules that defines conduct that is prohibited by the state because it is held to threaten, harm or otherwise endanger the safety and welfare of the public, and that sets out the punishment to be imposed on those who breach these laws. [1] The criminal law serves several purposes and benefits...

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Construction Law Cases

contract. This was used because it was claimed that Smith was not capable of doing the contracting therefore should not have been awarded the contract. 1565 states that consent by a party must be free, mutual, and communicated to all parties. This law came into effect because this was the precedent that allowed Smith to claim that the agreement was mutual. CC 1567 exclaims declares that consent is not free when obtained through fraud or mistake. This civil code applied to the case because the party...

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Common Law

Question A- states the similarities and differences between legislation and subsidiary legislation. What is legislation? Legislation knows as statutory law which is has been enacted or promulgated by any kind of governing body or even parliament. It refers to a single law or even a group body of enacted law. In the history, it is called as “bill” which is more often than not projected by a member of the legislature. Examples of legislation are Statutes or Acts of Parliament, Ordinance and Enactments...

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Common Law Contracts

between Grocery, Inc. and its vendors? Do common law contracts apply? Explain your answer in detail. Your answer should compare and contrast law contracts and UCC Article 2 contracts. The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) Article 2 applies only to contracts for the sale of goods. The definition of goods is defined as goods that are tangible, movable, or personal property. However, UCC Article 2 does not apply to real estate contracts or employment contracts. Common law contracts are for the sale of services...

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Insider Dealings in Nigeria


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Seminar notes

has its own set of laws on business associations. Although there are just under 200 states in the world, there are even more company laws. One country, the United States of America, has 50 company laws within its territory (one for each State in the Union) plus the law of the District of Columbia (http://www.citmedialaw.org/legal-guide/forming-corporation-district-columbia ) In addition, there is also US Federal law which affects companies on certain matters, such as securities law (i.e. the sale of...

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Introduction: The question of whether contract law can absorb technological change without the need for distinctive guidelines, presuppositions or similar rules is highly dependent on the effects of the amendments to the Electronic Transactions Act 2000 (NSW) (“ETA”). The impact of the ETA on traditional common law principles varies depending on the level of certainty and predictability available in the circumstances and how the law applies. The suitable amount of consistency is likely to vary...

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Pre Registration Contracts

The common law view of pre-registration contracts was that the company did not exist for legal purposes until it had been formally incorporated (registered). This common law view resulted in company's being unable to enter a binding contract until they had been registered. However "given the delays which can be encountered in the registration process, the promoter of a company may wish to enter into contracts `for' the company prior to its incorporation" . An example of this may be a promoter...

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land law. The judgement was so historic because it completely overturned the idea of terra nullius and said that native title survived in many places, even though the land had been taken by the Crown.See image 1 Mabo v Queensland [No 2] (1992) 175 CLR 1 (Mabo) declared that terra nullius had never legally existed and that it had been wrongfully applied to Australia. The high court said that 'ultimate' title existed instead, and through that, native title could be claimed. Australian land law has...

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Gun Control in Canada

versus those pro-gun organizations that are staunchly opposed to tougher laws. The history of firearms control in Canada is rather widespread, dating back to early Confederation. The Constitution Act of 1867 divided legislative powers between the federal government and the provinces. The provinces were assigned property and civil rights powers under Section 92(27). The federal government was assigned powers relating to criminal law as well as a general power to legislate under peace, order and good government...

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Legal 100 Quiz 2

plaintiffs had failed to show that the company operated under a general policy of discrimination. Question 6 5 out of 5 points Correct Case law, the legal rules made by judges when they decide a case where no constitution, statute or regulation exists to resolve the dispute, is known as ________. Answer Selected Answer: Common law Correct Answer: Common law Question 7 5 out of 5 points Correct For diversity purposes, a corporation is deemed a citizen of Answer Selected Answer: both...

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1. Common Law Common Law is used to interpret what the terms in the contract mean, especially when there is a dispute about the application of an Act or the contractual relationship in a case, which then may become part of a common law (Victoria Legal Aid 2009). Besides, common law divides work relationship into two basic categories when the employment contract exists – contracts for service if the worker is an independent contractor and contracts of service if the worker is an employee (WorkCover...

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Habeas Corpus and the on War on Terror

It appears to be predominately of Anglo-Saxon common law origin, although the precise origin of Habeas Corpus is uncertain. Its principle effect was achieved in the middle ages by use of similar laws, the sum of which helped to mold our current policies. Habeas Corpus has since the earliest times been employed to compel the appearance of a person who is in custody to be brought before a court. Habeas Corpus was generally unknown to the various law systems of Europe which are generally devolved from...

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Habeas Corpus

Habeas Corpus Dorinda Chrisman PHI208 Instructor Slack February 25, 2013 Habeas Corpus Habeas Corpus is an ancient common law prerogative writ - a legal procedure to which you have an undeniable right. It is an extraordinary remedy at law. Upon proper application, or even on naked knowledge alone, a court is empowered, and is duty bound, to issue the Extraordinary Writ of Habeas Corpus commanding one who is restraining liberty to forthwith produce before the court the person who is in custody...

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Evaluation of Bank

relevant country page (below) for more information. Under English common law, a banker is defined as a person who carries on the business of banking, which is specified as:[6] • conducting current accounts for his customers • paying cheques drawn on him, and • collecting cheques for his customers. [pic] Banco de Venezuela in Coro. In most common law jurisdictions there is a Bills of Exchange Act that codifies the law in relation to negotiable instruments, including cheques, and this...

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Mabo Assignment

Native Title and its ramifications for Australian Law The Torrens Title System: A system devised to recognise provable ownership of land by Law. Australia initially adopted the British system using Title of Ownership, deeds of grant and following the doctrine on tenure where the Crown, is the ultimate owner of all lands (Gray et al. 2009). However, it was a large problem with legal fees, proof of ownership and forgeries until the Government managed resister was established enabling easier transactions...

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Assignment 2.4 - Auditor's Legal Liability to Third Parties

Chapter 20, Review Question 20-5 Distinguish among the four standards that have evolved for defining auditors' liability for ordinary negligence to third parties under common law. Why is this area of auditors' liability so complex? Legal precedent differs by jurisdiction (state by state). Third party must prove: 1. auditor had a duty to the plaintiff to exercise due care 2. auditor breached that duty by failing to act with due professional care 3. direct causal connection between auditor's...

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One of the most significant principles of the Law of Contract is that of the capacity of the parties to enter into the contractual agreement freely. Therefore, freedom of contract lies at the core of the contractual agreements. Once a valid contract has been entered into, each party is expected to undertake their obligations without fail. However, the doctrine of frustration sometimes intervenes in a manner that undermines the principle that parties ought to keep their agreements. This paper discusses...

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Final Paper

Habeas corpus is an old English law which has evolved into U.S. law to protect individuals and their civil liberties. While it allows people to challenge the justice system and ensure personal liberty, it also presents an issue when it comes to global terrorism. This is why there has been certain suspensions which, while controversial, prevent terrorists from having the right to habeas corpus. The following will discuss the law and its suspensions. Habeas Corpus and Protection...

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Doctrine of Competence

plaintiff’s claim ought to be decided by an arbitral tribunal or a court – has been one of the most complex and controversial question of modern arbitration law. Although there is broad agreement on one general proposition that arbitrators are empowered to rule on their own jurisdiction and then proceed to settle the substantive dispute (UNCITRAL Model Law 16(1), French Code Art 1466, English Arbitration Act 1996, S 30(1), Swiss PIL Art 186(1)) – decades of debates failed to produce a genuine consensus...

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Chapter 3

possible reasons why the English common law tradition provides the strongest and the French civil law tradition the weakest protection of investors. Answer: In civil law countries, the state historically has played an active role in regulating economic activities and has been less protective of property rights. In England, control of the court passed from the crown to the parliament and property owners in seventeenth century. English common law thus became more protective of property...

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Bank of America Business Analysis

treat foreign operations unfairly. If they did, few companies would hazard the investment” (Daniels et. al, p. 105, 2011). The differing market and legal systems, ranging from common law to theocratic law and a mixed system, etc could make room for trouble for BOA’s international business if the interpretation of the laws are not the same. Similarly, economic risk is the likelihood that certain events or changes in the economic status or a company or will cause drastic changes adversely affecting...

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Jury System in India

what exactly do we mean when we say jury system.According to Black’s law dictionary:“ Jury is a group of persons selected according to law and given the power to decide questions of fact and return a verdict in the case submitted to them.”This definition gives us some basic characteristics of a jury, let us examine them. * Group of people – it refers to a group of a few adult citizen picked from voter list. * Selected according law- after being selected from the voters list, a panel is formed and...

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BSBRSK501B Assessment4v15

actively works toward complying with these principles to ensure that risk management is effective. For each of the pieces of legislation listed, describe the intent of each and how it could impact on the process of managing risk. Privacy law Privacy Act is an Australian law, which regulates the handling of personal information about individuals. This includes the collection, use, storage and disclosure of personal information, and access to and correction of that information. The Office of the Australian...

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Fusion or no fusion of equity and the common law at a substantive level

and the common law at a substantive level Since the administrative fusion of the Common Law and Equity Courts after the 1873 and 1875 Acts, there has been a lot of controversy over whether to fuse both equity and common law. There are valid arguments both for and against fusion. Those arguing for the fusion of Equity and Common Law at a substantive level often comment on the inconsistency created by equity’s intervention in law. ‘There would sometimes be arbitrary gaps in the common law, that is...

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Melting Pot vs. Mosaic

landing on American shores, they are Americans and are expected to adopt and follow the American way. ------------------------------------------------- At the heart of Canadian society is our legal system. Our legal system is based on the English Common Law model, which in turn is based on a value system that places a strict adherence to following procedural rules over the substantive matter before the Court. The Canadian model is based on precedence which means that Courts are loath to do anything...

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The Habeas Corpus

for centuries in the Anglo-American tradition as a means of questioning government power. It is probably the most revered of all of the checks and balances in our legal history—as William Blackstone commented,” “the most celebrated writ in English law” (Gregory, A. 2011, 2nd par.). The Habeas corpus is to protect the individual from being imprisoned wrongly and due to a fair trial. Although, questions arise regarding whether proper use of habeas corpus been brought into focus over the last ten years...

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Fiduciary Duties of Directors

persons employed as officers of a company and have a duty to execute the management tasks of the company. Directors control and direct a company in the interests of its owners (known as shareholders). They also have particular responsibilities under the law and the company's constitution. Directors may directly manage the company's affairs when the company is small, but when the company is large, directors primarily oversee the company's affairs and delegate the management activities to corporate officers...

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Case Law - Rylands v Fletcher

TO: Isotola, Sui & Alberto FROM: Tom Caulton RE: Possible Action for Damages Isotola, Sui and Alberto (the plaintiffs) are interested to see what damages they can recover if they succeeded in negligence against the Dunedin City Council (DCC). Does the defendant (Dunedin City Council) owe a duty of care to the particular plaintiffs in the circumstances? Prior cases really only dealt with the ‘builders’ being responsible for the defect in the construction of a particular structure. In recent...

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Civil Liberties, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror

Rand Paul has asked. Habeas Corpus is an English common law that has existed for centuries as a “fix” of sorts for a legal system to protect a person being kept in custody. When used correctly, it essentially gives that person, or someone directly representing that person, the right to ask why they are being restrained and kept from other common laws and protects them from unlawful imprisonment. If held for reasons that cannot be explained then the law allows them to be released. This right can be suspended...

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contracts between minors and majors (adults)

the contracts against the student? The Law/rules 1) The general rule of English law is that any person is competent to bind himself to any contract he chooses to make, provided that it is not illegal or void for reasons of public policy. 2) At common law there are exceptions to this rule in the case of corporations, minors, and married women, mentally incompetent and intoxicated persons. 3) Contracts with minors, under common law, are such that a contract with a minor is not enforceable...

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An Analysis of the Cadastral Systems of New Zealand and South Australia

A Comparison of the Cadastral Systems in New Zealand and South Australia By Leighton Joyes 574038 Due 17/05/2012   New Zealand and South Australia both stem from British heritage and they have both inherited the common law system and developed cadastral systems from this (Toms, Williiamson, & Grant, 1988). A cadastre can be defined as “a public register usually recording the area (and spatial location) of land parcels in a country or jurisdiction” (Toms, et al. 1988)...

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Development of Common Law and Equity

of common law and equity Introduction I have been asked to write a essay on the development of common law and equity. Common law refers to the law created by judges that was historically significant but has been since replaced by parliament common law is the basis of our law today it is an unwritten law that developed from customs and judicial decisions. It is parallel with equity which refers to the source of law created by the Lord Chancellor which was designed to supplement the common law...

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Jury Trial Analysis

Jury Trial Analysis Fenisa Robinson CJA-364 October 1, 2012 John Huskey Jury Trial Analysis In the United States of America, the criminal justice system is based on the adversarial system or common law system. An adversarial trial allows the accused or defendant to be given a fair chance to prove his or her innocence. The Sixth Amendment of the United States Constitution states that the defendant is to be given a fair chance to oppose the prosecution, have witnesses to help with his or...

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Essay #2

properly by an impliedly authorized method. The common law rule of the impliedly authorized method is if the form of communication is the same or by faster means of communication as used in the offer. Although the Nelsons never sent any emails to the Cleavers, they did not specify to the Cleavers what form of communication to use. This effectively makes emailing an impliedly authorized method of communication because it is valid under the common law rule stating the same or faster form of communication...

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Fifth Amendment

danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be completed in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. Question #1 What specific constituencies supported the provisions of this amendment at the time of the Constitutional Convention? Who were they and why did they support...

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MGMT520 Study Guide Midterm

Capricious - Absence of a rational connection between the facts found and the choice made. 8. Abuse of discretion - A failure to take into proper consideration the facts and law relating to a particular matter; 9. Ultra vires - Describes actions taken by government bodies or corporations that exceed the scope of power given to them by laws or corporate charters. 10. Substantial evidence test - a legal concept that an individual piece of evidence is so sufficient that a reasonable person of sound mind could...

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OTC derivatives contracts reporting regime under the SFA

the Judge was whether the court, in dealing with an application to set aside an arbitral award founded on a contract which had been held by an arbitral tribunal to be valid and enforceable, could reopen the arbitral tribunal's findings of fact and/or law and decide for itself whether the contract in question was illegal. In this regard, the Judge held, after examining a number of decisions from England, Australia and Singapore as well as a textbook commentary on the IAA, that the court could do so in...

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The Role of the United States Constitution and the United States Legal System in Business Regulation

colonial times.   The fight for independence in the United States made the need for more responsive and effective business regulations.   In the nineteenth century, the US grew to be a world power and the economy became more industrialized.   Business laws were passed by the federal government that favored social reforms and not towards the big businesses.   Less regulation for business and the public was introduced in the twentieth century and had expanded until the 1970s.   Deregulation on the state...

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First Securities Company of Chicago

jurisdiction in which the Hochfelder case was filed invoked the legal precedent established by the Rush Factors case. Given this assumption, would the defrauded investors have been successful in pursuing a negligence claim against Ernst & Ernst under the common law? Why or why not? Rush Factors case provided grounds for plaintiffs who are foreseeable or limited parties that relied upon the fraudulent financial statements to file a claim against the accounting firm who audited the firm. The accountant should...

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