"Aneuploidy" Essays and Research Papers

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Aneuploidy

II. The result is that one gamete has 2 copies of one chromosome and the other has no copy of that chromosome. (The other chromosomes are distributed normally.) If either of these gametes unites with another during fertilization, the result is aneuploidy (abnormal chromosome number) • A trisomic cell has one extra chromosome (2n +1) = example: trisomy 21. (Polyploidy refers to the condition of having three homologous chromosomes rather then two) • A monosomic cell has one missing chromosome...

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Nondisjunction

into error, the two members of a homologous pair of chromosomes fail to separate and this condition gives two types of gamete. The first gamete has two copies of one chromosome, and the second has no copy of that chromosome. This event is called aneuploidy – an abnormal chromosome number condition involving the loose or gain of a single chromosome. If the cell has one missing chromosome, it is called monosomic. It is a deficiency in number of chromosomes, which contains one less chromosome. When...

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Karyotype Analysis and Species Identification

and for a female, the sex chromosomes are XX. Although I did not have any issues identifying my unknown species, some methodological errors that could have occurred include receiving a bad mitotic chromosome spread, mismatching chromosome pairs, aneuploidy, or having a missing chromosome It is easy to mismatch chromosome pairs when there are several different chromosomes present. I could have paired chromosomes that were not exact to the reference, but they were accurate enough to make an appropriate...

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Chromosomal Aberrations

"carriers" of the mutation. The affected individual will have this mutation in all of his or her cells and may be able to pass the mutation on to any offspring. Some common abnormalities and their resulting phenotypes are discussed below. Aneuploidy Aneuploidy is the gain or loss of individual chromosomes from the normal diploid set of forty-six chromosomes. As in structural anomalies, the error may be present in all cells of a person or in a percentage of cells. Changes in chromosome number generally...

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Chromosomal Rearrangements and Changes in Chromosome Number Reshape

| | |Difficulty:  2 | |50. |Which of the following is not an aneuploidy? | |A) |monosomy | |B) |tetraploid...

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Mitosis Meiosis

nuclei. VI. Errors in nuclear division can produce chromosome anomalies. A. Nuclei whose chromosomes do not form normal sets (eg, which have extra or missing chromosomes in one or more of the chromosome sets) are aneuploid. 1. Aneuploidies typically result from nondysjunction in either Meiosis I or Meiosis II. 2. If a nucleus which should be diploid has three of a chromosome instead of the normal two, that nucleus is trisomic. For example, if the nucleus of a human cell...

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Bread, Beer, and Cell Biology: What Has Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Taught Us About Cancer?

been key to many cancer advancements in this world. Research on yeast cells shows that certain cells are predestined to evolve into cancer cells. One study found that aneuploidy in cells lead to genomic instability and that this genomic instability correlated to an elevated rate of cancer development. (Sheltzer et al, 2011) Aneuploidy as well results in recombination defects and defective DNA repair which again in many cases leads to cancer. (Sheltzer et al, 2011) When these cells are identified in...

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Ap Bio Chapter 15 the Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

gamete with one after nondisjunction will have an abnormal chromosome number or aneuploidy. Trisomic cells have 3 copies of a particular chromosome type and have 2n+1 total chromosomes. Monosomic cells have only one copy of a particular chromosome type and have 2n-1 chromosomes. If the organism survives, aneuploidy leads to a distinct phenotype. Aneuploidy can also occur during failurs of the mitotic spindle. If aneuploidy happens early in devolpment, this condition will be passed by mitosis to a...

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Causes and Effects of Cancer

only a small fraction of cancer types…” Aneuploidy is a term describing abnormalities in chromosomes. “If you look at most solid tumors in adults, it looks like someone set off a bomb in the nucleus…there are big pieces of chromosomes hooked together and duplications or losses of whole chromosomes.” The issue though, is that most cancer cells’s genomes are unstable as wells as aneuploid, and so the new introduced problem is whether mutations or aneuploidy occurs first in a cancerous cell. One of...

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Future Eugenics

chromosomally normal baby (Lavy 6). There are many advantages and disadvantages when it comes to this technique, PGD. “The benefits PGD are increased implantation rate, reduction in pregnancy losses, reduction in the chance of having a child with aneuploidy, and it reduces the possibility of having to choose to terminate the pregnancy following a diagnosis of a probably genetic disorder” (Lavy 9). Moreover, “prenatal testing for genetic diseases is currently performed through amniocentesis or chronic...

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