* In April 1802 Jefferson urged Minister Livingston to attempt the purchase of New Orleans and Florida or, as an alternative, to buy a tract of land near the mouth of the Mississippi River where a new port could be constructed * Jefferson appointed his friend nd disciple James Monroe minister plenipotentiary and sent him to Paris with instructions to offer up to $10 million for New Orleans and Florida. * For 60 million francs- about $15 million- the United States was to have all of Louisiana. * Jefferson didn’t believe that the government had the power under the constitution to add new territory or to grant American citizenship to the 50,000 residents of Louisiana by executive act, as the treaty required. * The Louisiana Purchase was as much Hamilton’s doing as Jefferson’s. * Napoleon accepted payment in United States bonds- promises to pay the national debt- which he promptly sold to European investors. * It was ironic- and a man as perceptive as Hamilton must surely have recognized the irony- that the acquisition of Louisiana ensured Jefferson’s reelection and further contributed to the downfall of the federalists. * The Republican triumph seem that a handful of diehard Federalists in New England began to think of secession. Led by former secretary of state Timothy Pickering, sour implacable conservative, a group known as the Essex Junto organized in 1804 a scheme to break away from the Union and establish a “northern confederacy” * Pickering and his friends pushed ahead, drafting a plan whereby, having captured political control of New York, they would take the entire Northeast out of the Union. * Burr was overwhelmed by the regular Republican. The junto’s scheme collapsed. * Hamilton had campaigned against Burr, whom he considered an “embryo Caesar” * The 2 met with pistols on July 11, 1804 at Weehawken, New Jersey. Hamilton made no effort to hit the challenger but Burr took careful aim. Hamilton fell wounded, he died the next day. * Early in 1803 Jefferson got $2,500 from Congress and obtained the permission of the French to send his exploring party across Louisiana. * Scientific matters were inextricably intertwined with practical ones, such as the fur trade, for in his nature studies Jefferson concentrated on “useful” plants and animals. * After the consummation of the Louisiana Purchase, he instructed Lewis to trey to establish official relations with the Indians in the Spanish territories beyond. * Lewis and Clark had established friendly relations with a great many Indian tribes to whom they presented gifts, medals, American flags, and a sales talk designed to promote peace and the fur trade. * By 1808 fur traders based at St. Louis were beginning to invade the Rockies, and by 1812 there were 75,000 people in the southern section of the new territory which was admitted to the Union that year as the state of Louisiana. * While still vice president, Burr began to flirt with treason. He approached Anthony Merry, the British minister in Washington, and offerd to “effect a separation of the Western part of the United States.” His price was £110,000 and the support of a British fleet off the mouth of the Mississippi. * The British didn’t fall in with his scheme, but Burr went ahead nonetheless. Exactly what he had in mind has long been in dispute. * He joined forces with General James Wilkinson whom Jeferson had appointed Governor of the Louisiana territory and was secretly in the pay of Spain. * In 1806 Burr and Wilkinson had no difficulty raising a small force at a place called Blennerhassett Island in the Ohio River. Some six dozen men began to move downriver toward New Orleans under Burr’s command. * Wilkinson betrayed Burr to Jefferson at the last moment. Burr tried to escape to Spanish Florida but was captured in February 1807, brought to Richmond Virginia under guard and was charged with high treason. * Chief Justice Marshall presiding at the trial in his capacity as judge of the circuit court, repeatedly showed favoritism to the prisoner. * Unless 2 independent witnesses testified to an overt act of treason as thus defined the accused should be declared innocent. The jury deliberating only 25 minutes found Burr not guilty. * Some years later he returned to New York where he spent an unregenerate old age, fathering 2 illegitimate children in his seventies and being divorced by his second wife on grounds of adultery at age eighty. * Shipbuilding boomed and foreign trade which had quintupled since 1793, nearly doubled again between 1803 and 1805. By the summer of 1807 however the situation had changed. * In October 1805 Britain’s Horatio Nelson demolished the combined Spanish and French fleets in the Battle of Trafalfar off the coast of Spain. * The British retaliated with a series of edicts called Orders in Council blockading most continental ports and barring from them all foreign vessels unless they firsrt stopped at a britsh port and paid customs duties. Napoleon then issued his Milan Decree declaring any vessel that submitted to the British rules “to have become English property” and thus subject to seizure. * The blockades and counterblockades seemed designed to stop commerce completely yet this was not the case. When war broke out between Britain and France in 1792 the colonial trade of both sides had fallen largely into American hands because the danger of capture drove many belligerent merchant vessels from the seas. * American Merchants carried sugar from the French colony of Martinique first to the United States, a legal peacetime voyage under French mercantilism. Then they reshipped it to France as American sugar. Since the United Stares was a neutral nation and sugar was not contraband of war, the American expected the British to ler their ships pass with impunity. * Britain determined to halt the American reexport trade, thereby gravely threatening American prosperity. * Under any British law any able-bodied subject could be drafted for the service in the Royal Navy in an emergency. * HE might also stop a neutral merchant vessel on the high seas and remove any British subject. * Because working conditions in the American merchant marine were superior to those of the British, at least 10,000 British born sailors were serving on American ships, Some became American citizens legally, others obtained false papers. Some admitted to being British subjects, some were deserters from the Royal Navy. From the British point of view, all were liable to impressment. * The Jeffersonian administration conceded the right of the British to impress their own subjects from American ships. When neutralized Americans were impressed however, the administration was irritated and when the native born American were taken it became incensed. * Between 1803 and 1812 al least 5,000 sailors were snatched form the decks of United States vessels and forced to serve in the Royal Navy. Most of them- estimates run as high as 3 out of every 4 were Americans. * During the course of the controversy the British authorities freed 3,8000 impressed Americans which suggested that many more were seized. However the British refused to abandon impressment. * While the American merchant fleets passed 600,000 tons and continued to grow at an annual rate of over 10 percent Jefferson kept only a skeleton navy on active service despite the fact that the great powers were fighting a world wide, not holds barred war. * Between 1803 and 1807 the British seized more than 500 American ships, Napoleon more than 200. The United States could do nothing. * The ultimate frustrations came on June 22, 1807 off Norfolk Virginia. * Among the crew of the Chesapeake were a British sailor who had deserted from HMS Halifax and 3 Americans who had been illegally impressed by the Captain of the HMS Melampus and had later escaped. * Thinking that the leopard wanted to make some routine communications, Captain James Barron did so. A British officer came aboard and demanded that the 4 “deserters” be handed over to him. Barron refused, whereupon as soon as the officer was back on board, Leopard opened fire on the unsuspecting American ship killing 3 of sailors. Barron had to surrender. * The attack was in violation of the international law for no nation claimed the right to impress sailors from warships. The British government admitted this though it delayed making restitution for years. * Jefferson contented himself with ordering British warships out of American territorial waters. * The result was the Embargo Act which prohibited all exports. * Exports feel from $108 million in 1807 to $22 million in 1808, imports from $138 million to less than $57 million. * Jefferson refused to admit that the embargo was a fiasco and urge its repeal. Only in his last week in office did a leaderless Congress finally abolish iit, substituting the Non-Intercourse Act which forbade trade with Great Britain and France and authorized the president to end the boycott against either power by proclamation when and if stopped violating the rights of the Americans. Chapter 7: National Growing Pains
* In 1809 Secretary of the Treasury Gallatin was alarmed by the growing federal deficit. He urged Representative Nathanial Macon of N.Carolina to introduce legislation to remove all restrictions on commerce with France and Britain. * General William Henry Harrison was governor of the Indian Territory. * Tecumseh the Shawnee chief made a bold and imaginative effort to reverse the trend by binding all the tribes east of the Mississippi into a great confederation. * To Tecumseh’s political movement his brother Tenskwatawa known as the “Prophet” added the force of a moral crusade. The prophet put a curse on America that every president elected in a year ending with 0 would die during their time. * By 1811 thousands of Indians were organizing ti drive the whites off Indian land. Alarms swept through the west. * With about 1,000 soldiers, General Harrison marched bodly against the brothers’ camp at Prophetstown where Tippecanoe Creek joins the Wabash in Indiana. * While the battle of Tippecanoe was pretty much a draw, it dillusioned the Indians and shatters their confederation. * The west contained immense tracts of virgin land, but Westerners wanted more. * When the War Hawks, called for war against Great Britain, they did so because they saw no other way to defend trhe national honor and force repeal of the Orders in the Council. * The illogic of the War Hawks in pressing for a fight was exceeded only by their ineffectiveness in planning and managing what would become the War of 1812. * For a brief moment the American frigates held center stage, for they were faster, tougher, larger, and more powerfully armed than their British counterparts. Barelt 2 months after the declaration of war, Captain Isaac Hull of the USS Constitution * In October the USS United States captained by Steven Decatur hero of the wasr against the Barbary Pirates caught the HMS Macedonian. * In December the Constitution now under Captain William Bainbridge, took on the British frigate Java off Brazil. “Old Ironsides” shot away Java’s mainmast and reduced it to a hulk too battered for salvage. * These victories had very little influence on the outcome of the war. * Meanwhile, the British had captured Fort MIchilimacknac in Northern Michigan anf the Indians had taken Fort Dearborn massacring 85 captives. * About ¼ of Perry’s 400 men were blacks, which led him to remark that “the color of a man’s skin” was no more an indication of his worth than the “cut and trimmings” of his coat. With the Americans in control of Lake Erie Detroit became untenable for the British and when they fell back Harrison gave chase and defeated them at the Thames River, some 60 miles northeast of Detroit. * The British swarmed into the capitol and put most public buildings to the torch. Before personally setting fire to the White House, Admiral Cockburn took on of the presidents hats and a cushion from Dolley Madison’s chair as souveniers and finding the table set for dinner, derisively drank a toast to “Jemmy’s health” adding an observer coyly recalled “pleasantries to vulgar for me to repeat”. * The British were in no hurry to sign a treaty believing that their 3-pringed offensice in 1814 would swing the balance in their favor. * News of the defeat at Plattsburgh modified their ambitions, and when the Duke of Wellington advised that from a military point of view they had no case for territorial concessions so long as the United States controlled the Great Lakes, they settled for status quo ante bellum, to leave things as they were before the war. * On Christmas Eve 1814 the treaty, which merely ended the state of hostilities was signed. * The Hartford Convention, a meeting of New England Federalists held in December 1814 and January 1815 to protest the war and to plan for a convention of the states to revise the constitution. * Sentiment in New England had opposed the war from the beginning. * Similar to that expressed in the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions by the republicans when they were in the minority, was accompanied by a list of proposed constitutional amendments designed to weaken the federal government, reduce congress’s power to restrict trade, and limit presidents to a single term. * Still more discrediting to Federalists was the second event hat would not have happened had communications been more rapid: Battle of New Orleans. During the fall of 1814 the British had gathered an army a Negril Bat in Jamaica, commanded by Major General Sir Edward Pakenham, brother in law of the Duke of Wellington. Late in November an armada of sixty ships set out for New Orleans with 11,000 soldiers. * Jefferson’s men called him Old Hickory and the Indians called him Sharp Knife. * General Pakenham was wounded twice, then killed by a shell fragment while calling up his last reserves. * After the war was won the Senate ratified the peace treaty unanimously, and the frustrations and failures of the past few years were forgotten. Moreover, American success in holding off the Great Britain despite internal frictions went a long way toward convincing European nations that noth the United States and its republican form of government were here to stay. * American trade was becoming ever more important to the British, that of the sugar islands less so. In july of 1815, they therefore signed a commercial convention ending discriminatory duties and making other adjustments favorable to trade. * When the US decided suggested demilitarizing the great lakes, the British agreed, The Rush Bagot Agreement of 1817 limited each country to one 100-ton vessel armed with a single eighteen pounder on Lake Champlain and another on Lake Ontario. The countries wer to have 2 of each for all of the other Great Lakes. * In the convention of 1818 the two countries agrees to the 49th parallel as the northern boundry of the Louisiana Territory between the Lake of the Woods and the Rockies, and to the joint control of the Oregon country for 10 years. * IN 1818 James Monroe, who had been elected president in 1816, ordered Generla Andrew Jackson to clear raiding Seminole INdiands from American soil and to persue them into Florida if necessary. Seizing on these instructions, Jackson marched into Florida and easily captured 2 Spanish fleets. * The Spanish feared for the future of their tottering Latin American empire, especially the northern provinces of Mexico which stood in the path of American westward expansion. * Luis de Onis set out on December 1817 to negotiate a treaty with John Quincy Adams, Monroes secretary of state. * ONis saved Texas for his monarch but accepted a boundry to the Louisiana territory that followed the Sabine, Red, and Arkansas Rivers to the Continetal divide ans the 42nd parallel to the pacific, thus abandoning Spains claim to a hige area beyond the Rockies that has no connections with the Louisiana Purchase. * The Us obtained Florida in return for a fee of $5 million, and that monet was not paid to Spain but to Americans who held claims against the Spanish government. * This Transcontinental Treaty was signed in 1819 although ratification was delayed until 1821. * Most Americans felt that quibbling and quarreling with foreign powers might prove a distraction from the great task of national development. The classic enunciation of this point of view , the completion of America’s withdrawals from Europe was the Monroe Doctrine. * Begininning with the explorations of Vitus Bering in 1741, the Russians had maintained an interest in fishing and fur trading along the northwest coast of North America. IN 1821 the czar extended in his claim south to the 51 parallel and forbade the ships of other powers to enter coastal waters north of that point. * Between 1817 and 1822 practically all of the refion from the Rio Grande to the southernmost tip of South America had won its independence. Spain, former master of all area except for Brazil, was too weak to win it back by force, but Austria Prussia, France, and Russia decided at the Congress of Verona in 1822 to try and regain the area for Spain in the interests of “legitimacy”. * In 1824 the Russians signed a treaty with the US abandoning all claims below the present southern limit of Alaska and removing their restrictions on foreign shipping. * In 1823 the British foreign minister, George Canning, suggested to the American minister in London that the US and Britain issua a joint statement opposing that they themselves would never annex any part of Spains old empire, and saying nothing about recognition of the new republics. As Secretary Adams pointed out, to agree to the proposal would be to abandon the possibility of someday adding Cuba or any pther part of the Latin America to the US. * The principles laid down by President Monroe so perfectly expressed the wishes of the people of the US that when the country grew powerful enough to enforce them, there was little need to alter or embellish his pronouncement. * The Monroe Doctrine, by far Monroes most significant achievement of his administration, was as much the work of the Secretary od state Adams as his own. * When the British raid on Washington and Baltimore in 1814 sent panicky depositors scurrying to convert their deposits into gold or silver, the overextended financiers could not obligate to them. All banks outside the New England suspended specie payments; that is, they stopped exchanging their bank notes for hard money on demand. * Paper money immediately fell in value. In October 1814 Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Dallas submitted a plan for a 2nd Bank of the US, and after considerable wrangling over its precise form, the institution was authorized in April 1816. Its first president was William Jones. * By the summer of 1818 the Banks 18 branches had issued notes in excess of ten times their specie reserves, far more than was prudent, considering the banks responsibilities. When the depression struck the country in 1819 Jones Resigned. Langdon Cheves of South Carolina took over. * The Land act of 1800 set $2 an acre as the minimum price and 320 acres as the smallest unit. Since banks were pursuing an easy-credit policy, land sales boomed. * The west wanted cheap land; the north and south tended to look on the national domain as an asset that should be converted into as much cash as possible. Northern maunifacturers feared that cheap land in the west would drain off surplus labor and force wages up, while southern planters were concerned about the competition that would develop when the virgin lands of the southwest were put to the plow to make cotton. * Congress abolished the African Slave trade in 1808 a major incident. As the nation expanded, free and slave states were added to the Uniion in equal numbers with Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois being balanced by Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.IN 1819 there sere 22 states, 11 slave and 11 free. * Henry Clay favored freeing the slaves and “colonizing: them in Africa, which could, he said, be accomplished gradually and at a relitvely minor cost. * When Louisiana entered the Union in 1812, the rest of the Louisiana Purchase was organized as the Missouri Territory. Buildin on a nucleus of Spanish and French inhabitants, the region west and north of St. Louis grew rapidly, and in 1817 the Missourians petitioned for statehood. * During the debate on the Missouri Enabling Act in Feb. 1819, Congressman James Tallmadge of New York introduced an amendment prohibiting ”the further introduction of slavery” and providing that all slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state should be freed at age 25. * The Northwest Ordinance had prohibited slavery in the land between the Mississippi and the Ohio, but that area had only a handful of slaveowners in 1787 and little prospect of attracting more. Elsewhere no effort to restrict the movement of slaves into the new territory had been attempted. * Missouri entered the Union as a slave free stat and Maine, having been separated from Massachussetts, was admitted as a free state to preserve the balance to the Senate * The Missouri Compromise did not end the crisis. When Missouri submitted its constitution for approval by Congress, the document, besides authorizing slavery and prohibiting the emancipation of any slave without the consent of the owner, required the state legislature to pass a law barring free blacks and mulattos from entering the state “under any pretext whatever”. * When a new, still higher tariff was enacted in 1824, the slave states voted almost unanimously against it, the North and Northwest in favor, and New England remained of 2 minds. * Calhoun changed his mind about protective tariffs by 1824, but he avoided declaring himself because of his presidential ambitions. Another reason was that the old party system had broken down; the Federalists had disappeared as a national party and the Jeffersonians, lacking an organized opposition, had become less aggressive and more troubled by factional disputes. * In March 1824, Calhoun who was yound enough to wait for the White House, withdrew and declared for the vice presidency, which he won eaily. Crawford, who had the support of many congressional leaders seemed the likely winner, but he suffered a series of paralytic strokes that gravely injured his chances. * Since no one had a majority the contest was thrown to the House of Representatives which under the constitution had to choose from the 3 leaders, each delegation having one vote. By influencing his great influence in the House, Clay swung the balance. Not wishing to advance the fortunes of a rival westerner like Jackson, Clay gave his support to Adams, who thereupon was elected. * Adams elected in 1824 hoped to use the national authority to foster all sorts of useful projects. HE came out for aid to manufacturing and agriculture, for a national university, and even for a government astronomical observatory. As son of John Adams to ask for these programs was so disasterous, every doubter remembered his Federalist background and decided that he was trying to overturn the glorious “revolution of 1800”. * An increasingly powerful federal government required higher revenues – higher duites – culminating in the what became known as the “Tariff of Abominations” in 1828. Calhoun was upset because he thought that it would impoverish the South. His essay, The South Carolina Exposition and Protest repudiated the nationalist philosophy he had previously championed. * Henry Clay based his American System on the idea that sectional economic differences could be mutually beneficial. He argues that western farmers would profit by selling off their crops to eastern city dwellers and that spending public money on building roads and other internal improvements would make transportation and communication less expensive and thus benefit everyone. Chapter 8: Toward a National Economy
* Among aristocratic circles in Europe, gentility was the product of ancestry and cultivated style; but in America it was largely defined by possession of material goods. * Porcelin plates made by English craftsman Josiah Wedgewood and Mahogany washstands by Thomas Chippendale were appearing even in the frontier communities. * Bringing workers together in buildings called factories where waterpower, and later steam, supplied the force to run new spinning and weaving devices that increased productivity and reduced labor costs. * It was not until Samuel Slater installed his machines in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, that a successful factory was constructed. * Slater, born in England, was more than a skilled mechanic. Attracted by stories of the rewards offered in the US he slipped out of England in 1789. Not daring to carry any plans, he depended on his memory and his mechanical sense for the complicated specifications of the necessary machines. * In December 1790 the first American Factory began production. * By 1800 seven mills possessing 2,000 spindles were in operation; by 1815, after production had been stimulated by the war of 1812, there were 130,000 spindles turning in 213 factories. * Before long the Boston Associates, a group of merchants headed by Francis Cabot Lowell, added a new dimension to factory production. Beginning at Waltham, Massachusetts, where the Charles River provided the necessary waterpower, between 1813 an d1815 they revolutionized textile products. * Instead of hiring children, Boston Associates developed the “Waltham System” of employing young, unmarried women in their new textile mills. * They were lodged in company boardinghouses, which like college dormatories, the boardinghouses were strictly supervised; straitlaced New Englanders didn’t hesitate to permit their daughters to live in them. * The women earned between $2.50 and $3.25 a week, about half of which went for room and board. * Marshall thought that “the business community was the agent of order and progress” and tended to interpret the constitution in a way that would advance its interests. * The cases involved 2 major principles: the “sanctity” of contracts and the supremacy of federal legislation over the laws of the state. Marshall shared the conviction of the Revolutionary generation that property had to be protected against arbitrary seizure if liberty was to be preserved. Contracts between private individuals and the government must be strictly enforced, he believed or chaos would result. * In Dartmouth College vs, Woodward, which involved an attempt by New Hampshire to alter the charter granted to Dartmouth by King George III in 1769, Marshall held that such a charter was a contract and might not be cancelled or altered without the consent of both parties. The state had sought not to destroy the college but to change it from a private to a public institution, yet Marshall held that to do so would violate the contract clause. * Maryland Legislature placed an annual tac of $15,000 on “foreign” banks, including the Bank of the US! The Maryland Branch if the Bank of the US refused to pay, whereupon the state brought suit against its cashier John M McCulloch. McCulloch vs. Maryland was crucial to the Bank for 5 other states had levied taxes on its branch, and others would surely follow suit if the Maryland law were upheld. * Marshall extinguished the threat. The Bank of the US was constitutional, he announced in phrases almost taken verbatim from Hamilton’s 1791 memorandum to Washington on the subject; its legality was implied in many of the powers specifically granted to congress. * Since the Bank was found legal, the Maryland tax was unconstitutional. * Marshall said “The power to tax involves the power to destroy…the power to destroy may defeat and render usless power to create.” The long range significance of the decision lay in its strengthening of the implied powers of the Congress and its confirmation of the Hamiltonian or “loose” interpretation og the Constitution. * Gibbons vs. Ogden In 1815 Aaron Ogden, former US Senator and governor of NJ, had purchased the right to operate ferry between Elizabeth Point, NJ and NYC from Robert Fulton’s backer, Robert R Livingston, who held a monopoly of steamboat navigation on the Hudson. When Thomas Gibbons who held a federal coasting license set up a competing line, Ogden sued him. Ogden argues in effect that Gibbons could operate his boat (whose captain was Cornelious Vanderbilt) on the NJ side of the Hudson but had no right to cross into the New York waters. * Marshall decided in favor of Gibbons, effectively destroying the New York monopoly. “The act of Congress” he said, “is supreme; and the law of the state…must yield to it.” * Their competition tended to keep rates low and service efficient to the great advantage of the country. * Marshall and his colleagues firmly established the principle of judicial limitation on the power of legislatures and made the Supreme Court a vital part of the American System of government. * Two years later in the Charles River Bridge case, the court handed down another decision that aided economic development. The state of Massachusetts had built a bridge across the Charles River between Boston and Combridge that drew traffic from an older, privately owned toll bridge nearby. Since no tolls were collected from users of the state bridge after construction costs were recovered, owners of the older bridge sued for damages on the ground that the free bridge made the stocj in their company worthless. They argued that in building the bridge Massachusetts had violated the contract clause of the Constitution. * The court however now speaking through the new Chief Justice, Roger B. Taney, decided otherwise. The state had the right to place the “comfort and convenience” of the whole community over that of a particular company, Taney declared. “Improvements” that add to the public “wealth and property” take precedence. * The Charles River Bridge Case advances the intersts of those who favored economic development. Chapter 9: Jacksonian Democracy
* Now a man whom John Quincy Adams called a “barbarian” held Jefferson’s office, and, as one Supreme Court Justice complained, “the reign of King ‘Mob’ seemed triumphant.” * Jacksons inauguration, and especially this celebration in the White House, represented the triumph of “democracy”, the achievement of place and station by the “common man”. * The new western states, unfettered by stystems created in a less democratic age, drew up constitutions that eliminated property qulaifications for voting and holding office. * By Jacksons time only 2 states, Deleware and South Carolina, still provided for the choice of presidential elections by the legislature; in all others they were selected by popular vote. The system of permitting the congressional caucus to name the candidates for the presidency came to an end before 1828. Jackson and Adams were put forward by state legislatures, and soon thereafter the still more democratic system of nomination by national party conventions was adopted. The beginnings of the free-school movement, the earliest glimmerings of interest in adult education, and the slow spread of secondary education all bespeak a concern for improving the knowledge and judgements of the ordinary citizen. The rapid increase in the number of newspapers, their declaring prices and their ever-greater concentration on political affairs indicate an effort to bring political news to the common mans attention. * Eight times asmany people voted in 1840 as in 1824.
* Congressional Caucus System meeting where the legislatures woild choose the nominees for presidency. * Jackson took office with the firm intention of punishing the “vile wretches” who had attacked him so visciously during the campaign. (Rachel Jackson died shortly after the election, and her devoted husband was convinced that the indignities heaped on her by Adams partisans had hastened her decline) * Eager for the “spoils”, an army of politicians invaded Washington. Such invasions were customary, for the principle of filling offices with ones partisans was almost as old as the republic. * By “rotating” jobholders periodically, more citizens could participate in the tasks of government, and the danger of creating an entrenched bureaucracy would be eliminated. * More than any early President, Jackson conceived of himself as the direct representative of all the people and therefore embodiment of national power. From Washington to John Quincy Adams, his predeccors together had vetoed only 9 bills, all on the ground that they believed the measures unconstitutional. Jacskon vetoed a dozen, some simple because he thought the legislation inexpedient. . Jacskon vetoed a dozen, some simple because he thought the legislation inexpedient. Yet he had no ambition to expand the scope of the federal authority at the expense of states. Basically he was JAcksonian ; he favored a “frugal,” constitutionally limited national government. * Jackson suggested that once the rapidly disappearing federal debt had been paid off, the surplus revenues of the government might be “distributed” among the states * IF the federal government turned its expected surplus over to the states, it could not afford to reduce the price of public land without going into the red. This disturbed westerners, notably Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, and western concern suggested to southern opponents of the protective tariff an alliance of South and West. * Senator Samuel Foot of Connecticut suggested restricting the sale of government land. Benton promptly denounced the proposal. ON January 19, 1830 Senator Robert Hayne of S. Carolina a spokesman for Vice President Calhoun, supported Benton vigorously, suggesting an alliance of South and West based on cheap land and low tariffs. Daniel Webster then rose to the defense of northeastern interests, cleverly groading Hayne by accusing S. Carolina of advocating disunionist policies. Responding to his attack, the S. Carolinian, a glib speaker but a rather imprecise thinker, launched into an impassioned exposition of the stated’ rights doctrine. * Webster made the states rights position appear close to treason; his “second reply to Hayne” effectively prevented the formation of a West-South alliance and made Webster a presidential candidate. * After McChulloch vs Maryland had presumably established its legality and the conservative Langdon Cheves had gotten it on a sound footing, the Bank of the US had flourished. In 1823 Cheves was replaced as president by Nicholas Biddle, who managed it brilliantly. A talented Philadelphian, only 37 when he took over the bank, Biddle was experienced in literature, the law, and diplomacy as well as finance. * Small banks, possessing limited amounts of gold and silver, sometimes overextended themselves in making large amounts of bank nots available to borrowers in order to earn interest. * By collecting these notes and presenting them for conversion into coin, Biddle could compel the local banks to maintain adequate reserves of gold and silver – in other words, make them hold their lending policies within bounds. * In every field of economic activity, reckless lending caused inflation and greatly exaggerated the ups and downs of the business cylcle. (This lesson was hammered home to Americans during the financial meltdown of 2008, when lending for home mortgages spiraled out of control and the mortgage market crashed)/ * Biddle’s policies acted to stabilize the economy, and many interests, including a substantial percentage of state bankers, supported them. * Jackson can be included among the ignorant enemies of the institution, a hard-money man suspicious of all commercial banking. HE told Biddle, “but ever since I read the history of the South Sea Bubble I have been afraid of banks.” * Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other prominent nations Republicans hoped to use the Bank controversy against Jackson. * The charter would not expire until 1836, but by pressing the issue before the 1832 election, they could force Jackson to wither approve the recharter bill or to veto it( which would give candidate Clay a lively issue in the campaign). * Buttressed by his election triumph, Jackson acted swiftly. He ordered the withdrawal of the government funds from the nack, but his own secretary of the treasury thought it unwise and refused to do so. Jackson replaced him with Attorney General Roger Taney, who had been advising him closely on Bank affairs. Taney carried out the order by depositing new federal receipts in 7 state banks in eastern cities while continuing to meet government expenses with drafts on the Bank of the US. * Set on winning the Bank War, Jackson lost sight of his fear of unsound paper money. Taney, however, knew exactly what he was doing. One of the state banks receiving federal funds was the union bank of Baltimore. Taney owned stock in this institution and its president was his close friend. Little wonder that jacksons enemies were soon calling the favored state banls “pet” banks. * When Taney began to remove the deposits, the government had $9,868,000 to its credit in the Bank of the US; within 3 months the figure fell to $4 million. Faced with the withdrawal of so much cash, Biddle had to contract his operations. He decided to exaggerate the contraction, pressinf the state banks hard by presenting all their notes and checks that came across his counter for conversion into specie and drastically limiting his own banks business loans. * The Webster –hayne debate had revised discussion of Calhouns argument about nullification. * Therefore in April 1830, when the states rigghts faction invited himto dinner to celebrate the anniversary of Jeffersons birth he came prepared. * Calhoun said: “Our federal union: it must be preserved. The union next ot our liberty, most dear.” * Calhoun wanted very much to be president. He had failed to inherit the office from John Adams and had accepted the vice presidency again under Jackson in the hope of succeeding hima t the end of one term, if not sooner, for Jacksons health was known to be frail. Yet old hickory showed no sign of passin on or retiring. Jackson also seemed to place special confidence in the shrewd Van Buren, who as secretary of state, also had claim to his succession. * A silly social fracas in which calhouns wife appeard to take the lead in the systematic snubbing of Peggy Eaton, wife of the secretary of war, had estranged Jackson and Calhoun. (peggy was supposed to have had an affair with Eaton while she was still married to another man, and Jackson, undoubtedly sypmatheic because of the attacks he and Rachel had endured, stoutly defended her good name). * Jackson subscribed to the theory advanced by Jefferson, that Indians were “saveage” because they roamed wild in trackless wilderness. The “Oringinal Inhabitants of our forests” were “incapable of self government” Jackson claimes, ignoring the fact that the Cherokee lives settled lives and had governed themselves witout trouble before. * Jackson insisted the Indians receive fair prices for their lands and that the government bear the expense of resettling them. He believed that moving them beyond the Mississippi would protect them frpm the “degradation nd destruction to which they were rapidly hastening…in the states”. * Sequoyah created an alphabet for the Cherokee people.
* They took up farming anf cattle raising, developed a written language, drafted a constitution, and tried to establish a state within a state in northwestern Georgia. Several treaties with the US seemed to establish the legality og their government. But Georgia would not recognize the Cherokee Nation., * In Cherokee Nation vs. Geogia, chief Justin Marshall had ruled that Cherokee were not “a foreign state, in the sense of the constitituion” and therefore could not sue in a US court. However, inWorchester vs. Georgia, a case involving 2 missionaries to the Cherokee who had not procured licenses required by Georgia law , he ruled that the state could not control the Cherokee or their territory. * Jackson backed georgias position. (Davey Crocket opposes Jackdon). In 1838 after Jackson left the white house, the Us forced 15,000 cherokee to leave Georgia for Oklahoma, at least 4,000 of them died on the way the route has been named the trail of tears. * In 1822 the exposure in Charleston of a planned revolt organized by Denmark Vessey who had brought his freedom with money won in a lottery had alarmed many white. News of a far more serious uprising in virgina led by the slave Nat Turner in 1831 just as the tariff controversy was coming to a head, added to popular concern. Radical South Carolinians saw protective tariffs ans agitation against slaverhy as the 2 sides of one coin; against both aspects of what appeared to them the tyranny of the majority, nullification seemed the logical defense. * ON November 24, 1832, the convention passed an ordinance of nullification prohibiting the collection of tariff duties in the state after February 1, 1833. * As a result, administration leaders introduced both a new tariff bill and a force bill granting the president additional authority to execute the revenue lawas. Jackson was perfectly willing to see the tariff reduced. * The South Carolina Legislature professed to be satisfied with the new tariff and repealed the nullification ordinance saving face by nullifying the force act which was now a dead letter. * The nullification fiasco had proved that they could not succeds with outh the support of other slave states.