Us History Study Guide and Review

Topics: Iroquois, United States, James I of England Pages: 435 (170299 words) Published: November 5, 2012
AP* U.S. History Study Guide and Review
Aligned with Bailey’s American Pageant
- 13th edition -

This book is available in print, online at:

* “AP” is a registered trademark of the College Board

AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at


Don’t use this review instead of reading the text. Use this as a supplement, not a substitute. Be sure to practice free-response questions as well as studying the facts in this review. Be sure to practice essays and DBQ’s.

• •

Sources • • • The American Pageant, 13th edition, by Kennedy, Cohen, and Bailey served as a resource for the outlines. served as a resource for the vocabulary.


AP US History Review and Study Guide for “American Pageant” is available in print at

Chapter 1
New World Beginnings
I. The Shaping of North America i. Recorded history began 6,000 years ago. It was 500 years ago that Europeans set foot on the Americas to begin colonization ii. The theory of “Pangaea” exists suggesting that the continents were once nestled together into one mega-continent. They then spread out as drifting islands. iii. Geologic forces of continental plates created the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. iv. The Great Ice Age thrust down over North America & scoured the present day American Midwest. II. Peopling the Americas i. “Land Bridge” 1. As the Great Ice Age diminished, so did the glaciers over North America. 2. The theory holds that a “Land Bridge” emerged linking Asia & North America across what’s today the Bering Sea. People were said to have walked across the “bridge” before the sea level rose and sealed it off and thus populated the Americas. 3. The Land Bridge is suggested as occurring an estimated 35,000 years ago. ii. Many peoples 1. Those groups that traversed the bridge spread across North, Central, and South America. 2. Countless tribes emerged with an estimated 2,000 languages. Notably… i. Incas – Peru, with elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire. ii. Mayas – Yucatan Peninsula, with their step pyramids. iii. Aztecs – Mexico, with step pyramids and huge sacrifices of conquered peoples. III. The Earliest Americans i. Development of corn or “maize” around 5,000 B.C. in Mexico was revolutionary in that… 1. Then, people didn’t have to be hunter-gatherers, they could settle down and be farmers. 2. This fact gave rise to towns and then cities. 3. Corn arrived in the present day U.S. around 1,200 B.C. ii. Pueblo Indians 1. The Pueblos were the 1st American corn growers. 2. They lived in adobe houses (dried mud) and pueblos (“villages” in Spanish). Pueblos are villages of cubicle shaped adobe houses, stacked one on top the other and often beneath cliffs. 3. They had elaborate irrigation systems to draw water away from rivers to grown corn. iii. Mound Builders 1. These people built huge ceremonial and burial mounds and were located in the Ohio Valley. 2. Cahokia, near East St. Louis today, held 40,000 people. iv. Eastern Indians 1. Eastern Indians grew corn, beans, and squash in “three sister” farming… a. Corn grew in a stalk providing a trellis for beans, beans grew up the stalk, squash’s broad leaves kept the sun off the ground and thus kept the moisture in the soil. b. This group likely had the best (most diverse) diet of all North American Indians and is typified by the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw (South) and Iroquois (North). v. Iroquois Confederation 1. Hiawatha was the legendary leader of the group. 2. The Iroquois Confederation was a group of 5 tribes in New York state. 3. They were matrilineal as authority and possessions passed down through the female line. 4. Each tribe kept their independence, but met occasionally to discuss matters of common interest, like war/defense. 3

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