Key points to know
How Europe was prepared, by events and circumstances, to spring forth and devour the world, resulting in a modern world in which “European” means “modern.” That the preparation Europe experienced meant it was pretty much of a “no contest”; the Europeans were ready, and the rest of the world wasn’t. It wasn’t a Manichean contrast of “good” and “bad.” There were no idyllic societies. Period. (This does not mean that people and individual acts could not be seen as good or bad.) The expansion of Europe could be seen as a “folk movement.” Folk movements are neither good nor bad; they just are. One key legacy of Europe is the Lockean theory of Natural Rights. You will see this again in this course. And again. Taken together, the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation and the Enlightenment are known as The Three Revolutions that made Europe.
Roman Empire (gone by 500 AD)
Infrastructure- things that hold together (roads, interstates, etc.)
Roman Catholic Church- influenced by the government
Trade- infrastructure makes trade very easy and good
Law- common law helped trade and specialization with solidifying agreements. Europe after the Roman Empire
Middle Ages (~500-1500/1650)- Early Middle Ages/“Dark Ages” (~500-~1000AD) Feudalism- system of relationships
Vassals- owed loyalty (“fealty”) to the person above them (their liege/lord) Note: English feudalism- everyone’s a direct vassal of the king also Nation-state generally unknown- a land of principalities, duchies, etc. Commerce random- subject to tolls at every border
Roman Catholic Church (RCC)- the sole unifying factor after collapse of Empire Pope at the top- chosen by convoluted process (in principle, by senior clergy) Holy Roman Emperor (962-1806) supposedly ran secular government “Electors”- 3 bishops [Mainz, Trier, Köln] + 4 secular leaders- chose Kings vassals of Emperor (in theory > in practice); Emperor, of Pope Growth of Islam- Conquest of Mediterranean (and littoral) made Europe turn northward Islam is spread to the northern coast of Africa.
711 A.D- Islam cross the Mediterranean into Spain (Andalusha), then to
France 732 A.D- Reach their peak of tours.
Medieval Warm Period (900 – 1350)
Now not starving to death
Universities- as structured, degree-granting institutions
Ferment in the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church II- growing ferment
Formal split with the Eastern Church (1074)
Western RCC now more definitively “western” in its philosophies RCC clergy and bishops objecting to secular duties
Renaissance (~1300-1600)- rediscovery of knowledge, ~ ancient Greece & Rome Rebirth of interest in science
World “knowable”- a scientific system, subject to Natural Laws Technology- telescope, printing press, navigational devices
Knowledge revolution- dissemination fuels by printing press
Protestant Reformation (~1517-1648)
Jan Huss- lit the fire, but got burned (at the stake, 1415)
Martin Luther (1517-)
Challenged authority of RCC & Pope--& authority in general
Laid groundwork for individual thought & initiative
Broke bonds of the past- philosophically, politically, socially Peace of Westphalia (1648)- modern nation-state acknowledged Enlightenment (Age of Reason) (~1650-1700s)
Europe: a continent on the make- factors coming together for “take-off” Mercantilism- theory of “get organized to get rich”
What comes from outside your country (flawed theory, but…) Gold & (secondarily) silver & other precious materials (also flawed) Therefore- sell much but buy little, to accumulate the difference in gold or silver Sell finished goods (expensive), buy only raw materials (cheap) Set up trading economy to facilitate this
Trading posts abroad to conduct trade abroad
Navy to defend trade...
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