Total Internal Reflection in Fiber Optics

Topics: Optical fiber, Refractive index, Total internal reflection Pages: 11 (2902 words) Published: April 28, 2014
1. LIST OF FIGURES

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Description

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Figure 1.1

: MCVD (modified chemical vapour deposition) Process

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Figure 1.2

:OVD (outside vapour deposition) Process

5

Figure 1.3

: Drawing of fiber

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Figure 1.4

: Double crucible method

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Figure 2.1

: Total internal reflection in fiber optics

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Figure 3.1

: Transfer rate with different types of cable and LAN

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Figure 3.2

: Spiral Motion of Photons

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2. INTRODUCTION
2.2 GENERAL OVERVIEW
2.2.1 This report looks into three major sections: fabrication process and operational principle, total internal reflection of fiber optics and limitations, and enhancement of modern fiber optics. 2.2.2 Moreover, discussed in this report are the physics principles and brief history underpinning this technology. These are the key elements of which fiber optics has been developed and built upon over the years. 2.2.3 The information and facts contained in this report emerged from academic research undertaken by students John Escobia, Muhammad Arif, Zakwan Zahid and Mario Goraseb. The research was developed from studying one peer-reviewed material to another in a course of 3 weeks.

2.3 FABRICATION AND OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF FIBER OPTICS
2.3.1 Making the fiber perform
2.3.1.a.1 MCVD (modified chemical vapour deposition) Process 2.3.1.a.1.1 is mainly used to create glass fibers where silica soot is deposited on the inner wall of the glass tube. This process is called virification. 2.3.1.a.2 OVD (outside vapour deposition) Process

2.3.1.a.3 is a process quite similar to the MCVD, it differs by depositing silica soot on the surface of the target rod. This process is commonly used in the creation of plastic optical fibres.

2.3.2 Drawing the fiber
2.3.2.a.1 This is a process where a solid preform is converted into a thin fiber. 2.3.2.a.1.1 Double Crucible Method
2.3.2.a.1.2 Extrusion method

2.3.3 Operational principles of optic fibres
2.3.3.a.1 The phenomenon of total internal reflection is a vital principle that works in fiber optics.

2.4 TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION OF FIBER OPTICS AND LIMITATIONS 2.4.1 Total internal reflection in fiber optics
2.4.1.a.1 When the incident ray of light is higher or equals to the critical angle of a medium, the ray will not be refracted, but instead, reflected. 2.4.1.a.1.1 The critical angle of a medium is equated as such: C = arcsine (n2/n1). 2.4.1.a.1.2 In fiber optics, this phenomenon is of high importance in sending signals from one location to another.

2.4.2 Limitations in fiber optics
2.4.2.a.1 Several factors that lessens the efficiency of the signal transmission include: 2.4.2.a.1.1 the impurities in the glass,
2.4.2.a.1.2 mechanical strains
2.4.2.a.1.3 and maximum bandwidth limitation.

2.5 ENHANCEMENT OF MODERN FIBER OPTICS
2.5.1 Optical telegraph was invented out of the first application of fiber optics back in 1790s. 2.5.2 From that point onwards, this technology has been modernized by enhancement after enhancement for higher efficiency and considerable portability. 2.5.3 Fiber optics has made a huge impact in the telephone industry. 2.5.4 Yet there are still a lot more of room for improvement. 2.5.5 Researchers fond to this technology has been venturing through every possibility to overcome its limitations.

FABRICATION AND OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF FIBER OPTICS
There are two methods used when fabricating optical fiber. The first method is Vapour Phase Oxidation, which involves the making of a preform (solid glass rod). The other would be direct melt process. The Vapour Phase Oxidation method is mainly used to create glass fibres, whereas the direct- melt is most common in the creation of plastic optical fibre. Making the Fiber Preform

MCVD(modified chemical vapour deposition) Process
The first method of how these preforms are made is the MCVD (modified Chemical Vapour Deposition). During this process a glass tube made of...
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