Identify the endocrine glands and their hormones.
Gain an understanding of the functions of these
hormones in the body.
Analyze medical terms related to the endocrine glands
and their hormones.
Identify abnormal conditions resulting from excessive
and deficient secretions of the endocrine glands.
Describe laboratory tests and clinical procedures
related to endocrinology, and recognize relevant
Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical
terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports
Glands release hormones.
Hormones regulate the many and varied functions
of an organism.
Hormones bind to receptors.
Receptors are recognition sites in the various target
tissues on which hormones act.
Secrete their hormones directly into the
Send chemical substances (tears, sweat,
milk, saliva) via ducts to the outside of the
parathyroid glands (four glands)
adrenal glands (one pair)
pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
ovaries (one pair)
testes (one pair)
How are endocrine glands different from
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
There are two hormones:
thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4)
Thyroid hormones aid cells in their uptake of
oxygen and regulate metabolic rate.
Calcitonin: stimulates calcium to leave the
blood and enter the bone.
What are some of the hormones secreted by the
THYROID GLAND: HORMONES
Parathyroid hormone (PTH): causes calcium to
mobilize from bones into the bloodstream
LOCATION AND STRUCTURE
Each gland has two parts
an outer portion, the adrenal
Secretes corticosteriods or steriods,
chemicals derived from cholesterol
an inner portion, adrenal medulla
chemicals derived from amino acids
ADRENAL CORTEX SECRETES
Glucocorticoids: influence metabolism of
sugars, fats, and proteins (cortisol) and are antiinflammatory (cortisone). Influences—SUGAR
Mineralocorticoids: regulate electrolytes
Aldosterone: reabsorption of sodium/excretion of
Gonadocorticoids: androgens and estrogens.
FUNCTION ADRENAL MEDULLA SECRETES
Two types of catecholamine hormones
Epinephrine (adrenaline): increases heart rate
and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes,
releases glucose from storage.
Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): constricts
vessels to raise blood pressure.
Both are sympathomimetic agents.
What are two types of catecholamine secreted by the
THE ADRENAL CORTEX
Located near and partially behind stomach
Exocrine and endocrine organ
islets of Langerhans produce:
Insulin: promotes movement of glucose into
cells and promotes storage as glycogen
Glucagon: promotes movement of glucose into
the blood by breaking down glycogen stored in
Pea-sized gland in depression of skull (sella
turcica) also called the hypophysis
Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
Hypothalamus controls secretions of the
pituitary via releasing factors (hormones)
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