The Endocrine System

Topics: Endocrine system, Hypothalamus, Glands Pages: 19 (1068 words) Published: February 23, 2014
11/7/2011

CHAPTER 18
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Identify the endocrine glands and their hormones.
 Gain an understanding of the functions of these
hormones in the body.
 Analyze medical terms related to the endocrine glands
and their hormones.
 Identify abnormal conditions resulting from excessive
and deficient secretions of the endocrine glands.
 Describe laboratory tests and clinical procedures
related to endocrinology, and recognize relevant
abbreviations.
 Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical
terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports
and records.


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INTRODUCTION
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Glands release hormones.
 Hormones regulate the many and varied functions
of an organism.
 Hormones bind to receptors.
 Receptors are recognition sites in the various target
tissues on which hormones act.


INTRODUCTION
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM




ENDOCRINE glands—
Secrete their hormones directly into the
bloodstream
EXOCRINE glands—
Send chemical substances (tears, sweat,
milk, saliva) via ducts to the outside of the
body

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ENDOCRINE GLANDS
thyroid gland
 parathyroid glands (four glands)
 adrenal glands (one pair)
 pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
 pituitary gland
 ovaries (one pair)
 testes (one pair)
 pineal gland
 thymus gland




How are endocrine glands different from
exocrine glands?

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

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THYROID GLAND

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THYROID FUNCTION


There are two hormones:



thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4)
triiodothyronine (T3).

Thyroid hormones aid cells in their uptake of
oxygen and regulate metabolic rate.
 Calcitonin: stimulates calcium to leave the
blood and enter the bone.




What are some of the hormones secreted by the
thyroid gland?

THYROID GLAND: HORMONES

AND

ACTIONS

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PARATHYROID GLAND

PARATHYROID GLANDS

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PARATHYROID FUNCTION


Parathyroid hormone (PTH): causes calcium to
mobilize from bones into the bloodstream

ADRENAL GLANDS

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ADRENAL GLANDS:
LOCATION AND STRUCTURE
Each gland has two parts


an outer portion, the adrenal
cortex




Secretes corticosteriods or steriods,
chemicals derived from cholesterol

an inner portion, adrenal medulla


Secretes catecholamines
chemicals derived from amino acids

FUNCTION:
ADRENAL CORTEX SECRETES




Glucocorticoids: influence metabolism of
sugars, fats, and proteins (cortisol) and are antiinflammatory (cortisone). Influences—SUGAR
Mineralocorticoids: regulate electrolytes




Aldosterone: reabsorption of sodium/excretion of
potassium. Influences—SALT

Gonadocorticoids: androgens and estrogens.
Influences—SEX

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FUNCTION ADRENAL MEDULLA SECRETES


Two types of catecholamine hormones


Epinephrine (adrenaline): increases heart rate
and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes,
releases glucose from storage.



Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): constricts
vessels to raise blood pressure.



Both are sympathomimetic agents.



What are two types of catecholamine secreted by the
adrenal medulla?

THE ADRENAL CORTEX

AND

ADRENAL MEDULLA

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PANCREAS


Located near and partially behind stomach



Exocrine and endocrine organ

PANCREAS FUNCTION
Endocrine function
 islets of Langerhans produce:



Insulin: promotes movement of glucose into
cells and promotes storage as glycogen
Glucagon: promotes movement of glucose into
the blood by breaking down glycogen stored in
liver cells

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PANCREAS FUNCTION

PITUITARY GLAND


Pea-sized gland in depression of skull (sella
turcica) also called the hypophysis





Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)

Hypothalamus controls secretions of the
pituitary via releasing factors (hormones)

11...
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