The Autonomic Nervous System: Relationship to the Peripheral Nervous System

Powerful Essays
14: The Autonomic Nervous System
Objectives
Introduction 1. Define autonomic nervous system and explain its relationship to the peripheral nervous system. 2. Compare the somatic and autonomic nervous systems relative to effectors, efferent pathways, and neurotransmitters released. 3. Compare and contrast the functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions.
ANS Anatomy 4. For the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions, describe the site of CNS origin, locations of ganglia, and general fiber pathways.
ANS Physiology 5. Define cholinergic and adrenergic fibers, and list the different types of their receptors. 6. Describe the clinical importance of drugs that mimic or inhibit adrenergic or cholinergic effects. 7. State the effects of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the following organs: heart, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, adrenal medulla, and external genitalia. 8. Describe autonomic nervous system controls.
Homeostatic Imbalances of the ANS 9. Explain the relationship of some types of hypertension, Raynaud’s disease, and autonomic dysreflexia to disorders of autonomic functioning.
Developmental Aspects of the ANS 10. Describe some effects of aging on the autonomic nervous system.

Suggested Lecture Outline I. Introduction (pp. 526–528, Figs. 14.1–14.2)
A. Comparison of the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems (pp. 526–527; Fig. 14.2)
1. The somatic nervous system stimulates skeletal muscles, while the ANS innervates cardiac and smooth muscle and glands.
2. In the somatic nervous system, the cell bodies of the neurons are in the spinal cord and their axons extend to the skeletal muscles they innervate. The ANS consists of a two-neuron chain.
3. The neurotransmitter released by the somatic motor neurons is acetylcholine, which always has an excitatory effect; the neurotransmitters released by the ANS are epinephrine and acetylcholine, and both may have either an excitatory or an

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Peripheral Nervous System

    • 653 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The nervous system is one of the most important systems in the body. The nervous system helps to keep the human body in balance. There are several important parts of the nervous system; the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Each part of the nervous system has different jobs. There are two main parts of the nervous system peripheral and central. The peripheral nervous system is a collection of peripheral nerves, ganglia and specialized sensory structures that, as a unit, carries sensory and motor information…

    • 653 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Autonomic Nervous System

    • 687 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Chapter 16 The Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic (Thoraco-lumbar) division Parasympathetic (Cranial-sacral) division Somatic Motor vs Visceral Motor ■ ■ ■ ■ Somatic motor is directed from cortical levels to skeletal muscles and is voluntary. Visceral motor is directed from hypothalamus and midbrain and is involuntary, but has input from cortex and thalamus. Somatic lower motor neuron is in ventral horn of gray matter and neurotransmitter at skeletal muscle is Ach. Visceral motor comes from…

    • 687 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    The Nervous System: The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems The autonomic nervous system is behaviors that are involuntary to the nervous system. An example of this is when your eyes dilate according to the amount of lighting around you. The autonomic nervous system is subdivided into two parts, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. Most organs in the autonomic nervous system is monitored and managed by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons…

    • 264 Words
    • 1 Page
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Autonomic Nervous System

    • 2069 Words
    • 11 Pages

    Autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system (ANS or visceral nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions. The ANS affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, diameter of the pupils, micturition (urination), and sexual arousal. Whereas most of its actions are involuntary, some, such as breathing, work in tandem with the conscious…

    • 2069 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    The nervous system is one of the smallest yet one of the, if not the most, complex systems in the human body. It can be broken down into two main subdivisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system contains about 85 billion neurons and includes the spinal cord and brain. It is considered the control center of the body and processes all types of incoming sensory information. The peripheral nervous system is composed of all the other tissue…

    • 533 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Peripheral Nervous System

    • 3016 Words
    • 13 Pages

    Anatomy of Peripheral Nerves Peripheral nerves consist of fascicles that contain myelinated and unmyelinated axons. Endoneurium is the small amount of matrix that is present between individual axons. The perineurium is a sheath of special, fiber-like cells that ties the axons of each fascicle together. Epineurium is the connective tissue that surrounds the entire nerve trunk and gives off vascular connective tissue septa that traverse the nerve and separate fascicles from one another. | | Single…

    • 3016 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Autonomic Nervous System

    • 932 Words
    • 4 Pages

    The Autonomic Nervous System I - Key 1. Damage to the autonomic motor nerves would probably result in A. no change in muscle tone. B. muscle atrophy. C. flaccid paralysis. D. increased skeletal muscle contraction. Blooms Level: 2. Understand Fox - Chapter 09 #8 Section: 9.01 Topic: Nervous System 2. Damage to the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord would cause heart rate to be chronically increased compared to normal. FALSE Blooms Level: 2. Understand Fox - Chapter 09 #42 Section: 9.02…

    • 932 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Yes, the autonomic nervous system is responsible for promoting the release of epinephrine from the adrenal glands during times of distress. In particular, this results in the rapid release of stored glucose (glycogen) into the blood stream which leads to a cascade of increased alertness, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate. These changes to homeostasis are useful for their purposes, however, the body is incapable of remaining in this state for extended periods of time. Increased heart…

    • 228 Words
    • 1 Page
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Difference in Somatic and Autonomic Nervous System * The somatic nervous system consists of nerves that provide VOLUNTARY control over skeletal muscles * The autonomic nervous system exerts INVOLUNTARY control over the contraction of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity. * Basic function of the Sympathetic VS Parasympathetic Systems * Sympathetic system= “fight of flight” * Parasympathetic system= “rest and digest” * Both autonomic branches are required…

    • 1576 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The nervous system is an important part of the human body. The system is made up of many different parts and each part is placed in either the central or peripheral nervous systems. These two parts work together and bring physical feelings and the proper reaction to them. The peripheral nervous system is the larger of the two systems. The peripheral nervous system consists of two more systems inside of it. The two other systems are the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. The somatic nervous system…

    • 442 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays