The Effect of Catharanthus roseus (Kumintang) Leaf Extract on the Arthritis Score and Blood Vessel Density in Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Carrageenan-induced Arthritis in Rats

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The Effect of Catharanthus roseus (Kumintang) Leaf Extract on the Arthritis Score and Blood Vessel Density in
Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Carrageenan-induced Arthritis in Rats

Rachelle Zolla S. Ciudadano
Jan Jessica I. Rosit
Abe Nicole Patrick B. Salvador
Syaza Farrah Samanodi
Charlene Monica Sandoval
Nessa Grace S. Sarona
Cherie Anne V. Songcaya
Francris C. Talon
Cherrie A. Tapia
Herminigilda Nartatez, M.D.
Ma. Eva C. San Juan, MS Pharm, MS Biomed, FPGEC
Melinda C. Tagle, M.D.
Genevieve D. Tupas, MD, DPPS

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. The hallmark of the disease is the synovial inflammation that causes cartilage damage and bony erosions, resulting in changes in joint integrity (Creighton University, 2005).
It usually occurs during the most productive years of adulthood, between the ages of 20 and 40, and is a chronic disabling condition often causing pain and deformity. The prevalence varies between 0.3% and 1% and is more common in women (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011). According to Union Chimique Belge [UCB] (2008), a global biopharmaceutical company, people living with RA are at a higher risk of developing other conditions, including heart disease, stroke and depression. The productivity of patients afflicted with RA is significantly reduced, with studies showing that RA patients were confined to a wheelchair or bedridden 10-15 years after the onset of the disease.
In the Philippines, it is considered to be one of the leading causes of significant debility apart from asthma and cancer and about four times as many women as men have this disease. The prevalence is currently estimated to be approximately 0.06 percent according to the National Nutrition & Health Survey (NNHeS) and is expected to increase to 0.07 percent by 2012 (Frost and Sullivan, 2009).
The pathogenesis of RA have histological features of infiltration and



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