Team and Group Dynamics

Topics: Team, Conflict, Communication Pages: 17 (1175 words) Published: February 4, 2014
ORGANISATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR AND
DEVELOPMENT
Session 4:
Team and Group Dynamics

Case Presentation
• Hy Dairies Inc.

What are Teams?
Groups of two or more people who interact and influence
each other, are mutually accountable for achieving
common goals associated with organisational objectives,
and perceive themselves as a social entity within an
organisation.
• Groups of two or more

people
• Exist to fulfill a purpose
• Interdependent -- interact

and influence each other

• Mutually accountable for

achieving common goals
• Perceive themselves as a

social entity

Informal Groups
• Groups that exist primarily for the benefit of their members • Reasons why informal groups exist:
1. Innate drive to bond
2. Social identity -- we define ourselves by group memberships 3. Goal accomplishment

4. Emotional support

8-4

Advantages and Disadvantages of Teams
Advantages
• Make better decisions, products/services
• Better information sharing
• Higher employee motivation/engagement
- Fulfills drive to bond
- Closer scrutiny by team members
- Team members are benchmarks of comparison

Disadvantages
• Individuals better/faster on some tasks
• Process losses - cost of developing and maintaining teams • Social loafing

8-5

How to Minimize Social Loafing
• Make individual performance more visible
• Form smaller teams
• Specialize tasks
• Measure individual performance
• Increase employee motivation
• Increase job enrichment
• Select motivated employees

8-6

Team Effectiveness Model
Team Design

Organisation and Team
Environment
•Rewards
•Communication
•Organisational
structure
•Organisational
leadership
•Physical space

•Task
characteristics
•Team size
•Team composition

Team Processes
•Team development
•Team norms
•Team cohesion
•Team trust

Team Effectiveness
•Accomplish tasks
•Satisfy member
needs
•Maintain team
survival

A Comparative Approach to Group Dynamics
from Cummings and Worley (2005)

Cummings & Worley, 8e

(c)2005 Thomson/SouthWestern

6-9

Group-Level Diagnostic
Model
Inputs

Design Components

Outputs

Goal Clarity
Organization
Design

Task
Structure
Group
Composition

Team
Functioning
Performance
Norms

Group
Effectiveness

Cummings & Worley, 8e

(c)2005 Thomson/SouthWestern

6-10

Group-Level Design Components
• Goal Clarity
• extent to which group understands its

objectives
• Task Structure
• the way the group’s work is designed
• Team Functioning
• the quality of group dynamics among members
• Group Composition
• the characteristics of group members
• Performance Norms
• the unwritten rules that govern behavior

Cummings & Worley, 8e

(c)2005 Thomson/SouthWestern

Group-Level Outputs
• Product or Service Quality
• Productivity
• e.g., cost/member, number of decisions
• Team Cohesiveness
• e.g., commitment to group and organization
• Work Satisfaction

6-11

Organization/Team Environment
• Reward systems
• Communication systems
• Organizational structure
• Organizational leadership
• Physical space

8-12

Team’s Task Characteristics
• Teams work better when tasks are clear, easy to

implement
• learn roles faster, easier to become cohesive
• ill-defined tasks require members with diverse backgrounds and

more time to coordinate

• Teams preferred with higher task interdependence
• Extent that employees need to share materials, information, or expertise to perform their jobs.

8-13

Team Size
• Smaller teams are better because:
• need less time to coordinate roles and resolve differences • require less time to develop more member involvement, thus higher commitment
• But team must be large enough to accomplish task

8-14

Team Composition
• Effective team members must be willing and able to work

on the team
• Effective team members possess specific competencies

(5 C’s)

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