1. Give OIAN of the tongue.
The muscles of tongue can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic groups. The intrinsic muscles lie entirely within the tongue, while the extrinsic muscles attach the tongue to other structures. The extrinsic muscles reposition the tongue, while the intrinsic muscles alter the shape of the tongue for talking and swallowing. Extrinsic tongue muscles, by definition, originate from structures outside the tongue and insert into the tongue. The four paired extrinsic muscles protrude, retract, depress, and elevate the tongue:
Genioglossus muscle mandible-(Genial Tubercles) hypoglossal nerve
Protrudes the tongue as well as depressing its center.
Hyoglossus muscle hyoid bone hypoglossal nerve
Depresses the tongue.
Styloglossus muscle styloid process hypoglossal nerve
Elevates and retracts the tongue.
Palatoglossus muscle palatine aponeurosis pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve
Depresses the soft palate, moves the palatoglossal fold towards the midline, and elevates the back of the tongue.
Four paired intrinsic muscles of the tongue originate and insert within the tongue, running along its length. These muscles alter the shape of the tongue by: lengthening and shortening it, curling and uncurling its apex and edges, and flattening and rounding its surface.
The superior longitudinal muscle runs along the superior surface of the tongue under the mucous membrane, and elevates, assists in retraction of, or deviates the tip of the tongue. It originates near the epiglottis, the hyoid bone, from the median fibrous septum.
The inferior longitudinal muscle lines the sides of the tongue, and is joined to the styloglossus muscle.
The verticalis muscle is located in the middle of the tongue, and joins the superior and inferior longitudinal muscles.
The transversus muscle divides the tongue at the middle, and is attached to the mucous membranes that run along the