study guide exam 1
1) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
a) immunologist – studies ecology of Legionella pneumophila
b) virologist -- studies human immunodeficiency virus
c) Microbial ecologist -- studies bacteria that degrade oil
d) Microbial physiologist – studies fermentation of sourdough bread
e) Molecular biologist – studies recombinant DNA
2) You are observing a cell through a microscope and note that it has not apparent nucleus. You conclude that it most likely
a) has a peptidoglycan cell wall
b) has a cellulose cell wall
c) moves by pseudopods
d) is part of a multicellular animal
e) none of the above
3) In the light microscopes that you use in class, light passes through 3 lenses before entering your eye. They include (3)
a) the light source
b) the objective
c) the ocular
d) the iris
e) the condenser
4) Which type of microscopy takes advantage of differences in the refractive indexes of cell structures
a) oil immersion
b) Darkfield microscope
c) transmission electron microscope
d) Phase-contrast microscope
e) Brightfield microscope
5) After a gram stain you find blue rods with many colorless cocci. What stain would you do next?
a) An acid-fast stain
b) A flagella stain
c) A capsule stain
d) An endospore stain
e) A simple stain
6) What word best describes the following arrangement of cells
7) Whish of the following is not a chemical component of a bacterial cell wall?
c) teichoic acids
d) peptide chains
e) N-acetylmuramic acid
8) Which of the following is not part of the active transport process?
a) plasma membrane
b) carrier proteins
d) Cell wall
e) None of the above
9) Which of the following is not true about gram negative cell walls?
a) they protect the cell in a hypotonic environment.
b) They have an extra outer layer composed of lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.
c) They are toxic to humans.
d) They are sensitive to penicillin.
e) Their Gram reaction is due to the outer membrane
10) What will happen if a bacterial cell is placed in distilled water with lysozyme?
a) the cell will plasmolyze.
b) The cell will undergo osmotic lysis.
c) Water will leave the cell
d) Lysozyme will diffuse into the cell.
e) No change will result: the solution is isotonic.
11) According to the chemiosmitic mechanism, ATP is generated when
a) Electrons are transferred between carrier molecules.
b) A high energy phosphate group is transferred form an intermediate metabolite to ADP.
c) Chlorophyll liberates an electron.
d) Protons are moved across a membrane.
e) Cells lyse in a hypotonic environment.
12) Which of the following is not an end produce of fermentation?
a) lactic acid b) ethyl alcohol c) glycerol
d) pyruvic acid e) acetone
13) Which of the following will have effects on the action of an enzyme( all that apply)
c) presence of certain metals
d) presence of certain organic cofactors
e) presence of membranes
14) Which of the following are true about Archaea (4)
a) they are prokaryotes
b) they lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls
c) some are thermoacidophiles: others are extreme halophiles
d) evidence suggests they evolved form eukaryotes
e) some produce methane form carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
15) Serological testing is based on the fact that
a) all bacteria have the same antigens
b) antibodies react specifically with an antigen
c) the human body makes antibodies against bacteria
d) antibodies cause the formation of antigens
e) bacteria clump together when mixed with any antibodies.
16) A primary difference between cyanobacteria and purple and green phototrophic bacteria is?
a) energy source b) cell wall type c) Oxygen production d) cell type e) color
17) You have isolated a gram-positive rod. What test will you perform next?
a) gram stain b) lactose fermentation c) endospore stain d) flagella stain e) DNA fingerprint
Short answers. Fill in the blanks or give a short answer for the following.
1) Your field of view through a microscope is 0.3 millimeters. If you have a worm that takes up half of your field of view it would be ______ micrometers. (2pt)
2) You have a sample of bacteria growing on a plate. You have one large white colony and one small clear colony. It is Monday, and you want to perform a gram stain on Wednesday. What would you do? (3pt)
4) What two method did you use in lab to obtain pure culture? (2pt)
Essay: Choose 2 of the following (7 points each)
1. Describe the process of pasteurization, why is this processed used, does it leave a food sterile? Who is this process named after?
2. Describe in detail how to make a bacteria smear. List the reasons for each step.
3. Describe and give evidence for a theory that describes where structures like mitochondria come from.
4. Describe the actions of an enzyme. List how they work.
5. You want to grow a chemoheterotroph in a defined media. Describe the media that you would you use?
6. You have an unknown bacteria that you think causes sudden death in mice. What is the standard method to prove that this organism causes the disease?