Study Guide AC 340 - Chapter 1,2,3,4,7,8
Enterprise systems integrate the business process and information from all of an organization’s functional areas, such as marketing and sales, cash receipts, purchasing, cash disbursements, human resources, production and logistics, and business reporting (including financial reporting).
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems (such as SAP) are software packages that can be used for the core systems necessary to support enterprise systems.
E-business is the application of electronic networks (including the Internet) to undertake business processes between individuals and organizations. These processes include interaction between back-office (i.e., internal) processes, such as distribution, manufacturing, and accounting; and front-office (i.e., external) processes, such as those that connect an organization to its customers and suppliers.
Internal control is a process—effected by an entity’s board of directors, management, and other personnel—designed to provide reasonable assurance of objectives in the following categories: efficiency and effectiveness of operations, reliable reporting, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
Systems and subsystems
System is a set of interdependent elements that together accomplish specific objectives. Subsystem is the interrelated parts that have come together, or integrated, as a single system. Components of a business process
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Flow 1. Management hires personnel and establishes the means for accomplishing the work of the organization. For example, management would design the procedures used to warehouse inventory and then to ship those goods to the customers. Flow 2. Management establishes broad marketing objectives and assigns specific sales quotas by which progress toward the long-run objectives can be measured. In addition, management designs the IS’s procedures for facilitating operations, such as the procedures used to pick and ship goods to the customer. Flow 3. Normal operations begin with the IS receiving a customer’s order to purchase goods. Flow 4. The IS acknowledges the customer’s purchase order. Flow 5. The IS sends a request to the warehouse to ship goods to the customer. This request identifies the goods and their location in the warehouse. Flow 6. A document (i.e., a packing slip) identifying the customer and the goods is attached to the goods. Flow 7. The goods are shipped to the customer.
Flow 8. The shipping department reports to the IS that the goods have been shipped. Flow 9. The IS prepares an invoice and sends it to the customer. Flow 10. The IS sends management a report comparing actual sales to previously established sales quotas.
 Note that flow 6 is shown as coming from the IS, whereas flow 7 emanates from the operations process. Physically, the two flows are really inseparable; logically, however, they are separate. In later chapters, we will have more to say about the difference between logical and physical system features. ASK: Where is the accountant?
What is information
Data is transformed into information
How? By manipulating the data to obtain the qualities required by users. Examples of manipulation?
The accountant role as it relate to IS
Designer—application of accounting principles, auditing, information systems, and systems development User—participate in design
Auditor—provide audit and assurance services
The legal and professional standards that characterize AIS clearly distinguish it from MIS Design and development of systems
Reliability and integrity
The knowledge of accounting standards (GAAP).
Lower total costs in the supply chain
Shorten throughput times
Reduce stock to a minimum
Improve cash flow/cash management
Enlarge product assortment...
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