Social capital is one community characteristic that may affect parenting for healthy lifestyle. Lower levels of social capital show a relationship with a negative healthy outcome that includes a higher rate of subclinical atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease to name a few. Youth physical activity has also been linked to social capital, as the social capital increases the higher the physical activity. Confounding factors dependent on this relationship includes neighbourhood level poverty, individual and neighbourhood educational status, race/ethnicity, sex of the respondent and child weight status and age.(Davisona, et at.,2012). Sport and recreation are two of the many factors that could affect the social capital either positively or negatively.
RECREATION AND SOCIAL CAPITAL
Social capital “refers to features of social organization such as networks, norms and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit” (Putnam, 1995, p. 67). The link of social capital to social structure, or social networks, is explicit. Analysis of social networks permits an understanding of how social structures can act to facilitate and hinder opportunities and behaviours. Social capital has been employed as a framework to examine and discuss a variety of leisure and recreation issues (e.g. Stokowski, 1990; Blackshaw & Long, 1998; 2002; Glover, 2004). The role that leisure plays in the creation of social capital through the initiation of opportunities for interaction of like-minded people, and fostering associational memberships, can lead to increases in social capital (Putnam, 1995; Hemingway, 1999). Warde & Tampubolon (2002) have suggested that there is a relationship between greater recreation consumption and greater civic and public participation. Social capital theory suggests four related hypotheses about the representation of outdoor recreation in land-use planning: there is a significant relationship between...
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