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1. A, because organisms need carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals and other nutrients to gain energy and proteins to live and to continue metabolism.
B, The amount of energy stored in macromolecules varies because their chemicals structures, and there for the energy contain in their chemical differ.
2. 6O2 + 62H1206 -> 6O2 + 6H2O + Energy
B The process of cellular respiration provides the energy a cell needs to carry processes, which in turn control the cell’s internal conditions.

3. Photosynthesis “deposits” energy, used carbon dioxide and water, and produces oxygen and glucose. By cellular contrast, cellular respiration “withdraws” energy, uses oxygen and glucose and produces carbon dioxide and water.
b. The chemical energy of glucose is stored in the body as (ATP), whenever this energy is needed. It can directly be taken and consumed by the body.

In savings account the same idea, u save your money there, and anytime u need money; u can take it from your account directly without waiting and spent it.
4. An ATP-generating metabolic process that occurs in nearly all living cells in which glucose is converted in a series of steps to pyruvic acid.
Pg. 260
1. At the end of glycolysis, each molecule of glucose has yielded 2 molecules of pyruvate, 2 molecules of NADH, and a net of 2 molecules of ATP.

Energy in the form of ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate). Glycolysis takes molecule of glucose and turns it into energy the body can use.

Glycolysis converts one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, along with "reducing equivalents" in the form of the coenzyme NADH.

The global reaction of glycolysis is:
Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP + 2 Pi → 2 NADH + 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 H2O + 2 H+
Therefore, for simple fermentations, the metabolism of 1 molecule of glucose has a net yield of 2 molecules of ATP. Cells performing respiration synthesize much more ATP but this is not considered part of glycolysis. Eukaryotic aerobic respiration produces an additional 34 molecules (approximately) of ATP for each glucose molecule oxidized.
b. They are both oxidizing agents, meaning that they can be reduced to NADH and NADPH respectively.
The two molecules of pyruvic acid (pyruvate) produced from glycolysis (glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, and fructose 1, 6-biphosphate. pyruvate) turn into acetyl coenzyme.
b. The citric acid cycle forms the electron carriers, which drive the synthesis of ATP.

The cycle directly produces ATP or GTP, NADH, FADH2 and, CO2.

It is a cycle because every acetyl CoA that enters the cycle reacts with oxaloacetate to produce the electron carriers (NADH and FADH2) and oxaloacetate again.

3. It passes them down a chain of proteins. These proteins use the energy in the electrons to create concentration gradients, which build up on one side of the membrane. I am such off the top of my head that this concentration is of H+ atoms inside the inner membrane of the mitochondria, once this concentration is great enough; the particles go through what is known as chemiosmosis, in which they go through a protein in the membrane called ATP synthase, which acts a kind of pump. This pump is powered by this concentration gradient, and as H+ ions go out of the membrane through this pump, they give the energy needed to phosphorylate ADP into ATP, making energy. Phosphorylate means to add a phosphate group. in this case, from adenosine diphosphate, or two phosphates, to adenosine triphosphate, or three phosphates per molecule.
4. 36 molecules when using aerobic respiration, but only 2 when using anaerobic.

Pg. 265.
1. Aerobic and Anaerobic.

b. Both occur anaerobically. Lactic acid fermentation would occur in muscle and ethanol fermentation would occur by yeast. The products are different of course as one produces lactic acid and the other ethanol.
2. Runner breathe heavily because as you are wasting energy inside you,
ATP, more energy is needed to be made from stored energy or even from fat. In the Electron transport chain, the two electrons always sit there and the only way for the cycles to keep going is for the to connect to oxygen plus one hydrogen and form water. Because lots of energy is used, more oxygen is needed to be supplied to the body. There for you breath heavily because you want to intake as much oxygen as you can and satisfy
The cells.
b. The carbohydrates used during exercise this are stored as glycogen both in the muscles, and around the liver. These stores are limited, and as they begin to run out the proportion of energy provided by fat rises, (though you cannot metabolise fat unless there is at least some carbohydrate as well). Once your glycogen stores have run out, your body begins to break down muscle proteins to provide energy and to maintain blood sugar levels.

Background- we were trying to do cellular respiration on crickets in a lab project, and we tried to figure out the o2 and co2 levels depending on the different temperatures

Lab setup Control Experiment Results

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