2. Which of the following is a micronutrient?
3. Christopher's lunch contains 121 grams of carbohydrate, 40 grams of protein, and 25 grams of fat. What percent of kilocalories in this meal come from fat? A) 19%
4. The building blocks of proteins are called:
A) fatty acids.
B) amino acids.
D) nitrogen fragments.
5. Protein is the only macronutrient that contains the element nitrogen. TrueFalse
6. In the United States, diseases related to overnutrition (heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes) are more common than nutrient deficiency diseases. TrueFalse
7. Vitamins contain 4 kilocalories per gram.
8. Which of the following is a disaccharide?
9. Which of the following enzymes is found in the mouth?
C) pancreatic amylase
D) salivary amylase
10. Which enzyme digests carbohydrates in the stomach?
A) salivary amylase
B) pancreatic amylase
D) None, carbohydrates are not digested in the stomach.
11.In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat. A) amyloses
12. Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis? A) a diet that contains too much fat
B) a diet that contains insufficient fat
C) a diet that contains too much carbohydrate
D) a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate
13. Which of the following are good sources of fructose?
A) milk and cheese
B) fruits and honey
C) fruits and vegetables
D) breads and cereals
14. Jane consumed a breakfast that contained 80 grams of carbohydrate, 20 grams of protein, and 10 grams of fat. Approximately how many kilocalories did Jane eat at breakfast? A) 324 kilocalories
B) 500 kilocalories
C) 420 kilocalories
D) 1,000 kilocalories
15. Which of the following represents a nutrition transition? A) increased availability of maize over corn
B) decreased reliance on carbohydrates
C) lower-fat subsistence crops
D) increased consumption of sugar
16. What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat? A) carbon
17. Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries most of the fat-soluble nutrients? A) vascular
18. Type 2 diabetes is seen only in adults.
19. High-intensity exercise uses carbohydrate as a primary fuel source. True False
20. A high glycemic index food can cause a sudden rise in blood glucose levels. True False
21. Some excess kcals from carbohydrate are stored as fat.
22. Carbohydrates contribute ________ kcal/gram.
23. Which of the following BEST describes the glycemic index? A) an individual's glucose/insulin ratio in a fasted state B) the amount of insulin required to metabolize 100 grams of glucose C) the glucose content of a given food
D) the extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin 24. A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of:
A) two monosaccharides.
B) two polysaccharides.
C) one monosaccharide and one polysaccharide.
D) two oligosaccharides.
25. Lactose intolerance is due to a(n):
A) deficiency of lactose.
B) deficiency of lactase.
C) deficiency of the GI flora (healthy bacteria).
D) allergy to casein (milk protein).
26. Diets with high glycemic load are associated with a reduced risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes. TrueFalse
Match the following items.
_____ 27. Glycogen A) Storage form of carbohydrate in plants _____ 28. Starch B) Primary source of energy for the body's cells _____ 29. Fiber C) Disaccharide found in beer
_____ 30. Lactose D) Primary carbohydrate in milk
_____ 31. Maltose E) Polysaccharide not digested by humans _____ 32. Glucose F) Storage form of carbohydrate in animals 33. Bob eats his breakfast and his GI tract will now begin the process of digesting and absorbing the nutrients from this meal. What is the order in which each of the organs of the GI tract will work to achieve this process? A) mouth: esophagus: small intestine: stomach: large intestine B) mouth: esophagus: stomach: small intestine: large intestine C) mouth: stomach: esophagus: small intestine: large intestine D) mouth: stomach: esophagus: large intestine: small intestine
34. The simplest molecules of carbohydrates are called:
A) fatty acids.
B) amino acids.
35. Over 16 million Americans have diabetes. Which of the following is the most prevalent form of diabetes? A) type 1
B) type 2
36.A lipase is an enzyme that digests:
37. Fetal programming refers to
A)A mother’s preference for television shows or music during pregnancy. B)An infant’s preference for television shows or music as a result of exposure while in utero. C)The idea that undernourishment in a pregnant woman might lead to a propensity for overweight in their child. D)The idea that adequate nourishment in a pregnant woman might lead to a propensity for overweight in their child.
Some terminology to know (this is not an exhaustive list):
The GI tract and accessory organs – all of them
Secretions of each organ (enzymes and hormones (CCK, secretin))
Mono-, di-, polysaccharides and examples of each
Glycolysis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
PLEASE NOTE: Be sure to study the vocabulary lists on the lecture outlines too as there will be questions on those terms.