Research Methodology

Topics: Research, Scientific method, Basic research Pages: 38 (12229 words) Published: July 5, 2013
Research is the systematic investigation into existing or new knowledge. It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. Research is defined as the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an individual’s speculation with reality. DEFINITION OF RESEARCH

The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.” Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.” CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH

i. Empirical: Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. ii. Logical: Research is based on valid procedures and principles. iii. Cyclical: Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem iv. Analytical: Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental and case study. v. Critical: Research exhibits careful and precise judgment. vi. Methodical: Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures. vii. Replicability: The research design and procedures are replicated or repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results. QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER

* Research-oriented
* Efficient
* Scientific
* Effective
* Active
* Resourceful
* Creative
* Honest
* Economical
* Religious

i. Basic Research: This is also called as “fundamental research” or “pure research”. It seeks to discover basic truths or principles. Examples:
* Boyle’s Law
* Charles’ Law
* Archimedes’ Principle
* Hooke’s Law
* Newton’s Law
ii. Applied Research: This type of research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem, such as a development of a new system or procedure, new device, or new method in order to solve the problem. iii. Developmental Research: This is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices. CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH

i. Library Research. This is done in the library where answers to specific questions or problems of the study are available. ii. Field Research. Here, research is conducted in a natural setting. iii. Laboratory Research. The research is conducted in artificial or controlled conditions by isolating the study in a thoroughly specified and equipped area. STEPS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH

The major steps in conducting research are:
A. Identification of research problem
B. Literature review
C. Specifying the purpose of research`
D. Determine specific research questions or hypotheses
E. Data collection
F. Analysing and interpreting the data
G. Reporting and evaluating research
The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, or the desire to identify a recreation trend nationally. Sources of research problems

i. Research in social sciences revolves around four Ps:
ii. People- a group of individuals
iii. Problems- examine the existence of certain issues or problems relating to their lives; to ascertain attitude of a group of people towards an issue iv. Programs- to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention v. Phenomena- to establish the existence of regularity

vi. In practice most research studies are based upon at least a combination...

Bibliography: * Adapted from Shamoo A and Resnik D. 2009. Responsible Conduct of Research, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press).
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