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Religion 2U notes

By jakabella Nov 19, 2013 16488 Words
STUDIES OF RELIGION
Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post-1945
Contemporary Aboriginal Spiritualties
Glossary
Dreaming
European term referring to essence of truth in Aboriginal religious belief Country/Ritual estate
Area of land which a community has particular responsibility which contains sites of significance Elders
Moral & spiritual leaders of communities who pass on knowledge Kinship system
Networks of relationships governing interactions between members of language groups Ceremonial life
Use of song, dance & symbolism to ritualise connections between totemism & ceremony Corroborree
Dance ceremony that may take the form of sacred ritual or informal gathering Balance rites
Rituals to bring about harmony in nature which aim to cause the protification of a certain animal, plant of natural phenomena connected with a particular ancestral spirit being Rituals
Religious or secular in nature – can be described as patterned series of activities capable of being repeated Sacred sites
Natural land formations where Ancestral Spirits interacted with creating Totemism
An entity – plant, animal or natural object – that has become the token or emblem of an individual or language group. The entity cannot be gathered, hunted or even painted by those who have it as their totem since it is believed to link them to the spiritual force responsible for their existence Advocacy

Actions by churches or Christian groups on behalf of minorities disregarded by those in authority Assimilation
Government policy adopted in 1951 that required all Aboriginals & part-Aboriginal people to live as members of a single Australian community Evangelise
Preaching the gospel
Missionisation
The policy of forcing Aboriginal people to reject their own religion and to accept Christianity & moving then to missions Government reserves
Reserves run by the government where Aboriginals were removed to Dispossession
The removal of Aboriginal people from their land which led to them losing their connection to their spirituality Protectorate system / protectionism
British policy enacted to “protect” the “natives”. It became a mechanism of control over Aboriginal people Segregation/Protection
Government practices & policies that set Aboriginals physically apart from white settlements The Stolen Generations
The taking of Aboriginal children from their parents by authorities and the placing of these children in institutes far removed from their families Self-determination
The most recent trend in Aboriginal administration is that Aboriginals are supposed to be able to determine & control their own businesses Terra Nullius
Latin words literally meaning “land belonging to no one.” An erroneous British concept according to which the continent of Australia was not inhabited by Indigenous peoples, and therefore was available for claim & colonisation Land Rights

The inherent rights of Aboriginals to their land, forming the basis of movement designed to ensure the preservation of Aboriginal spiritualties & culture. For those who cannot show unbroken connection to land due to dispossession Native Title

The exclusive title, rights & interests that Aboriginal people have in regard to land Native Title (MABO) judgement 1992
Judgement of the High Court of Australia, delivered on 3 June 1992, declaring that the Meriam people were entitled to the Murray Islands as owners, possessors & occupiers. The judgement recognised the existence of Aboriginal native title & destroyed the notion of “terra nullius” Native Title Act 1993

Australian federal legislation that recognises the existence of Aboriginal native title in Australian federal law & the native title rights of Aboriginal people Racial Discrimination Act 1975
Statue passed by Australian government that made it illegal to discriminate based on race Wik decision 1996
High Court determined that native title may coexist with pastoral leases & that where there is conflict between the two, pastoral rights will prevail Native Title Amendment Act
Pastoral leases override native title

Aboriginal spirituality and the Dreaming
Living religion – whole of creation linked together & every action/event of social significance has spiritual significance Holistic – correlation between created world, social world & spiritual world Aboriginal people lived for over 40 000 years

1 000 000 people from 600 – 700 tribes, each with own land, laws & political system 500 languages
Lived in communion with the Creator & each other
Sovereignty over own lands
Religion – way of life, living & being with direct links to land  responsibilities & relationships  practices Obligations to the land and people
The Dreaming, land and people inexorably linked
Totemism expresses link between human beings & creation. Linked to land & Spirit of territory – sacred sites associated with mythology of totem – land owns people Ceremonies enable communication with Ancestral Spirits & rejuvenation of “life-force” ensuring stability Ceremonialism formalise totemism – dance, song & symbolism links creation & spirits – balance, integrity & stability of creation sustained Value Systems

Spiritual significance of environment seen in adaptation rather than manipulation Form basis of social values that govern action & interaction Rules governing hunter-gatherer technology
Allow Aboriginals to survive & maintain ecological balance of environment Sharing of resources according to kinship guidelines
Kinship promotes cooperation rather than competition
Rules governing protection of sacred sites
Control visitation
Totems – totemic sites visitation prohibited by owners (linked by totems) & keepers (responsible for caring for them) Kinship & family
Livingness of religion expressed through structure of social & cultural institutions Kinship: networks of relationships governing interactions between members of language groups Difficult to interact with those outside community as order governing social behaviour doesn’t accommodate interaction with outsiders Relationships cultivated within extended family

Position in community  roles
Rules & obligations assigned to relationships
Ceremonial life
Initiation
Ritual ceremony/rite of passage denoting the transition from childhood to adulthood Various stages & forms in different language groups
Laws governing practices fixed
Responsibilities & obligations in spiritual & social life
Defines gender roles
Increased status, responsibilities & obligations to kinship, land, ceremonies & rituals Only at marriage is adulthood finally recognised
Male Initiation
Circumcision
Learn skin relationships, kinship, land & ceremonial obligations Relationships with females change – whom to approach, acceptable behaviour Age varies from 6 – 12
Ritual death of boy & spiritual rebirth into manhood
Taken from community by male elders
Women wail
Bullroarers – Ancestral Spirits ingest boy & spew him back as a man Formal teachings, discipline & training for new role
Right to marry & participate in ritual life
Forms of initiation:
circumcision
cicatrisation (scarring of the body)
fire ceremony
depilation (removing of hair)
nose piercing
tooth extraction
Female Initiation
Smaller number of participants – female relatives
Menstruation – taken from community to isolated area – prepared shelter Old women pass on myths & songs
Taught responsibilities, roles, behaviour, skills (gathering food, medicines, food preparation) Learns about ceremonial Women’s Business, respect for boys, relationships & behaviour, land At sunrise following menstruation period ritually bathed with other young women Painted & decorated, led back to community

If not betrothed, arrangement made
Funeral Ceremonies
Important
Songs & ceremonies ensure spirit of deceased carried back to specific Ancestral Being’s land & responsibilities passed on Acknowledge skinline of deceased – relationships with specific ancestors, land & creation Ceremonies vary from days to weeks, depending on persons importance & gender “Sorry business” (mourning) names of dead people cannot be spoken for ¾ years as sign of respect Eldest child can renew usage of name by passing it on to infant Issues for Aboriginal Spiritualties in Relation to Land

Dispossession
1770 – Cooke received resistance from Aboriginals
Colonialists claimed it & declared terra nullius – “land belonging to no one” Deliberate social construction designed to enable European settlement without compensation for dispossession of Aboriginal peoples

The Human Cost of “Discovery”
Terra nullius led to attempt to exterminate Aboriginals – genocide through: mass poisonings of water holes, rations, blankets
“dispersals” – murders
discriminate shootings
“revenge parties”
e.g. smallpox epidemic 1789, Bathurst massacre 1824 – 100 died Colonisation & Missionisation
State & church power
Social Darwinism – hierarchy of humans with white on top & black peoples at bottom  Aboriginals inferior & dying race Colonisation: establishment (often by violent physical force & military power) of British colonies in Australia Removed Aboriginals from traditional lands, destroyed sacred sites & resources, disrupted system of hunting & gathering, killed means of sustenance Introduced foreign diseases eg. tuberculosis, measles, whooping cough & alcohol Made Aboriginals dependant on white rations – sugar, flour, tea, blankets Institutionalised systematic exploitation of Aboriginal people – compelled to become labourers, domestics, sexual partners, stockmen, drovers Fringe camps on outskirts of white settlements

Missionisation: compelled Aboriginal people to reject their religion & accept Christianity Children taken from families, split up & put into institutions – Stolen Generation Separation
Segregation/protection
Denotes practices & policies that set Aboriginals physically apart from white settlements Removed from traditional lands, families, resources  holding camps DISPOSSESED
Missions (churches) & reserves (government)
Treated like children – changed names, controlled marriage, employment & wages Punished if caught trying to leave missions/reserves
Attempt to destroy spirituality & links to land
Destroyed kinship system, gender roles, languages, culture, ceremonies Global opinion/pressure – rights of Indigenous people changes  protectorate system: British policy enacted to “protect” the “natives”. Became mechanism of control over Aboriginal people “Protectors” & “assistant protectors” – power over lives of Aboriginal people Mental & physical deprivation & torture, indignity

Assimilation
Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 – 1 Jan 1901 Excluded from population figures
Not dying out as predicted – economic burden of protection Assimilation: Government policy (1951) required all Aboriginal people to live as members of a single Australian community Native Conference 1961

Attempt to eliminate Aboriginal culture
Self-determination
Determine & control own business
1973 – states transferred policy making & coordinating functions in Aboriginal affairs to Commonwealth Development of government agencies for Aboriginal self-determination e.g. National Aboriginal Council Developed government programs in areas of training & employment e.g. Training for Aboriginals Program Commonwealth control over Aboriginal interests – financial manipulation The Land Rights and Native Title Movement

Religion based on land:
heart of Dreaming
rituals & ceremonies
determines relationships
identity, life & spirit
Land must be secure to preserve religious beliefs, tradition, languages & culture The untold story
Aboriginal land rights movement is religio-political movement Seeks to secure inherent rights of Aboriginals to their land  religious, spiritual & cultural integrity Frontier wars – direct, active resistance

Assimilation - non-cooperation & passive resistance, basic community initiatives (e.g. 1938 Day of Mourning) & strikes (e.g. 1946 Pilbara pastoral strike) Recently – national & international action (e.g. delegations to UN) Challenge legal & legislative bases of terra nullius

Examples
1. 1884, QLD – 600 Kalkadoons fought battle against Europeans at Battle Mountain to the last man. 2. 26 Jan 1938 NSW – publishes manifesto “Aborigines Claim Citizen Rights” & Aboriginal Conference and Day of Mourning & Protest in Sydney. Presented ten-point plan for Aboriginal equity to Prime Minister 3. 1 May 1946 – August 1949, WA – 800 Aboriginal pastoral workers strike made clear that pastoral industry dependent upon Aboriginal labour 4. 1972 Canberra – Tent Embassy. Focal point for protests

Land rights struggles
1950s – heavy focus on land rights
1963 – Bark petition
Yirrkala people on Gove Peninsula in NE Arnhem Land
Petition to Federal Parliament - ignored
Church-backed multinational corporation began bauxite mining – desecrated lands of Yolngu people 1970 – Aborigines Advancement League sent petition to Secretary-General of UN requesting rights to land – ignored 1971 – Northern Territory Supreme Court – Yolgnu had no legal rights to traditional land Continued to lodge cases in High Court of Australia – all failed Native title

Native Title (Mabo) Judgement 1992:
High Court of Australia declared Meriam people entitled rights to lands of Murray Islands Terra nullius dead – British claims to sovereignty did not extinguish Aboriginal native title to land Native Title Act 1993: legislation recognising existence of Aboriginal native title in Australian federal law & native title rights of Aboriginal people (came into force 1 Jan 1994) National Native Title Tribunal

Focus on traditional people who can show direct ongoing connection with a parcel of vacant crown land Doesn’t solve issue with continuing coexistence of native title & pastoral leases 1996 amendments to Native Title Act – weaken, restricts rights of Aboriginals to negotiate Wik people claim land 1993

Claimed native title in Australian Federal Court over traditional lands on cape York Peninsula QLD Land contained 2 pastoral leases
Wik Decision 1996
High Court – native title may coexist with pastoral leases, where conflict – pastoral rights prevail Allowed Wik people to continue land right claim & showed importance of negotiation John Howards ten-point plan 1997: undermined Native Title Act & Wik Decision Religious expression in Australia – 1945 to the present

Glossary
Census
The official numbering of a population
National Church Life Survey
Five-yearly co-operative venture across all churches that aims to provide evidence-based results to help churches connect with the wider community Denominational switching
Switching from a denomination of a religion to another, less extreme than conversion as stay within same tradition (Religious) conversion
Changing ones religious beliefs which involves a new religious identity Drifters

Pentecostal churches

New Age religions

Secularism

Ecumenism & ecumenical movements

Covenanting

Uniting church
Formed on June 22, 1977, as a union of 3 churches: the Congregational Union of Australia, the Methodist Church of Australasia and the Presbyterian Church of Australia. NCCA
Ecumenical council of ‘member Australian Christian Churches’. Have 19 member churches. (National Council of Churches in Australia). NSW Ecumenical Council
Comprised of 14 (Protestant and Orthodox) Christian churches throughout NSW and ACT. Committed to reconciliation and peace. Interfaith dialogue
Cooperative, constructive and positive interactions between people of different religious traditions or spiritual/humanistic beliefs. It exists at both an individual and institutional level. It aims to promote understanding and acceptance. (Indigenous) Reconciliation

The bringing together of Aboriginal and Torres Trait Islanders, or Indigenous, and non-Indigenous Australians. It involves working to overcome the reasons there is division and inequality.

Census data
Voluntary nature of religion question being specifically stated since 1933 1971 – no religion, increased to 19% in 2006
Christianity- remained dominant
Since 1996: 12.6 million – 12.7 million
As proportion of total population, number fell (71%- 64%)
Non-Christian religions- grow at faster rate
0.6 million- 1.1 million
5.6% of population
3 most common non-Christian religions:
Buddhism (2.1%)- 2nd fastest proportional growth since 1996 (doubling to 420,000) Islam (1.7%)
Hinduism (0.7%)- fastest proportional growth since 1996 (doubling to 150,000) People affiliated with non-Christian religions: clustered Sydney/Melbourne 2006: Sydney: 47% linked with Hindu/Islam
Melbourne: 46% linked with Judaism
Most common places- Buddhism: Sydney (37%) + Melbourne (30%) The current religious landscape
Christianity as the major religious tradition in Australia
Becoming multi-faith society
Majority religious affiliation – Christian
1962 constitution dissolved legal ties to Britain  CoE free to determine matters of faith for itself CoE changed name to Anglican Church of Australia in 1982
An Australian Prayer Book 1978 – forge distinctly Australian idiom among Australians A prayer book for Australia 1995 – inclusive language, prayers for Aboriginal reconciliation Anglicans 1981: 26.1%  2006: 18.7%

Roman Catholic Church 2006 – 25.8%
Catholic pre-war: 17.5%  post-war: 20.7% (Europe contributing Croatians, Germans, Italians, Spaniards & Maltese) 1975 – 1984 migration of Indo-Chinese refugees & migrants  Catholic Church 30 ethnic groups in Catholic Church

Catholic Church – largest number of adherents of all denomination Uniting Church
liturgical styles to informal & creative forms of worship
men & women can preach
committed to issues of social justice – Board of Social Responsibilities Pentecostal churches
show significant growth
influential preachers
individual churches/groups of churches
tendency to switch
enthusiastic prayer, contemporary music, stadium events  young generation e.g. Assemblies of God, Christian Revival Crusade
The impact of immigration
Muslim migrants
Turkish-born Australians grew from 2500 in 1966 to 10 times that in 1981 Lebanon after civil war 1975
Currently approx. 35 000 Lebanese Muslims in Australia
Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Jordan & Indonesia (35 countries in total)

Modern developments in Australian religion
Denominational Switching
Most common in Pentecostal churches
Where individual feels most at ease with style of worship & views Poorly regarded by conservative Protestants
Australian Bureau of Statistics & The National Church Life Survey Loyalty is to parish first, denomination second (especially among younger members) Leaving churches of parents to seek places where age of congregation younger, modern music, clear message e.g. Pentecostal or charismatic churches The rise of New Age religions

“loosely structured network of individuals and organisations holding new visions of enlightenment and harmony while subscribing to a common worldview” Counterculture movement of 1960s – open to new ways of thinking New religious belief and cosmologies

Hinduism – promote new way of thinking about divine
Religious & secular philosophies
e.g. holistic health professionals, ecologists, political activists, educators, human potential advocates, goddess worshippers, reincarnationists, astrologers Belief that it is possible to draw “truth” from variety of sources Syncretic philosophy forming worldview

All reality interrelated & interdependent
Multifaceted
Neo-pagans – revived paganism, rejected organised religion, male domination & abuse of nature Secularism
Religious perspectives abandoned in favour of more non-religious responses to life’s questions Hedonistic stance v abandon attitudes & instil guilt
e.g. Positivism (science), Marxism (revolution), Freudianism (psychoanalysis)  alternatives to religion, partial response to questions of human condition Reductionism – abandonment of which is no longer seen as relevant to comfortable life in modern-day society Religious dialogue in multi-faith Australia

Ecumenism and ecumenical movements
Post war Australian Christianity
Stressing common values & teachings across denominations & churches Biblical justification:
John 17:21 “that they may all be one… so that the world may believe” Characteristics:
Uniting of professing Christians of all denominations
Cooperation across denominations
Focus on things in common
Foundations set in early 1900s
World Council of Churches 1948 – became movement
Oikoumene – the whole inhabited earth, first used in World Council of Churches 1951 Relational & dynamic concept, extending to all humanity
Transformation of earth to lining household (oikos) of God
Decree on Ecumenism (1961) defined as “the initiatives and activities planned and undertaken … to promote Christian unity” Orthodox Churches participants
Churches of reformed traditions (e.g. Presbyterian Church) professed no common understanding of ecumenism Ecumenical movement: Uniting Church in Australia
The National Council of Churches in Australia (NCCA)
Seek to voice common concerns to the government on issues directly affecting Christian life 1994 – Catholic Church joined Australian Council of Churches to create NCCA The NSW Ecumenical Council
Network of 16 Christian churches
Three major principals:
1. To maintain “the unity of the Spirit on the bonds of peace” 2. To be committed to the gospel and to proclaiming it together 3. To live out the implications of the gospel for service in the world Centred on unity & core truths of God in Jesus Christ

Summary:
Ecumenism: unity among Christian groups from all traditions by the work of the holy spirit Origin of term:
Oikoumene
Greek term meaning the whole inhabited earth
Symbolic = Christian community and uniting movement
Only within Christianity
Scripture:
John 17:21 – THAT THEY MAY BE AS ONE
Gods plan ‘for the fullness of time to gather up all things in him, things in heaven and things on earth’ Ephesians 1:10 Understand that:
Jesus founded one church and one church only
Many Christian communions today each claiming to be the faithful Continuation of the Church founded by Jesus
Division is a contradiction of the will of Christ
God has given Christians in recent times a deep longing for unity Important dates:
1948 – 1st World Council of Churches
1960 – Vatican recognises existence of movement
1964 – Second Vatican Council’s Decree on Ecumenism, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox invited to this meeting 1977 – Uniting church in Australia UCA (Methodist, Presbyterian and Congregationalists) 1995 – Pope John Paul II’s encyclical Ut Unum Sint reaffirms Roman Catholic commitment 1999 – Catholics and Lutherans sign a joint declaration on the doctrine of justice Organisation in this movement:

National Council of Churches in Australia (NCCA)
Advises the government on issues that affect Christian life. Catholic Church joined 1994
The NSW Ecumenical Council
Network of 16 Christian churches throughout NSW and ACT.
Aims to promote the working together of Christian churches through: 1. Maintaining ‘the unity of the spirit in the bonds of peace.’ 2. Being committed to the gospel and proclaiming it
3. Living out the implications of the gospel for service

Interfaith Dialogue
Positive relationships need to be established among religious traditions Catalyst for personal, social & cultural transformation
Why it’s essential:
No single voice of truth
Reflects democratic system
Secular society, ambivalent about role of religion
Global world – responsibility for well-being of all humanity Multi-religious society – dialogue among traditions required for social cohesion Spirituality, truth & goodness not domain of religion alone

Responsibility in promoting dignity & justice for all humanity Dialogue between Christian groups complemented by dialogue between religious traditions 1992 – Guidelines for Catholic-Jewish Relations produced from Bishops’ Committee for Ecumenical & Interfaith Relations of the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference 1991 – Australian Council for Christians and Jews  Rightly Explaining the Word of Truth: set of guidelines for teaching about passages in New Testament that traditionally used against Judaism World Council on Religion and Peace (WCRP) major recipient of 1995 federal government grant in honour of the UN “Year of Tolerance” Summary:

What is Interfaith Dialogue?
Forming positive relationships between religious traditions in an effort to initiate cooperation and communication. Why is it essential?
1. There is no one voice of truth
2. Enforces democratic values
3. We have a national identity essential for the wellbeing of all humanity 4. To understand our multicultural society as a requirement for social cohesion 5. Spirituality, truth and goodness are universal issues

6. Promote social justice & the dignity of the human person
Where did it begin?
Post war period
By mid-1980s it was recognised that Australia was becoming a multi-faith society This led to the establishment of broader forums to address religious diversity Examples at national level
Uniting Church has established working groups on relations with both Muslim and Jewish communities Community for Ecumenical and Interfaith Relations (Catholic Church) Commission for Dialogue with Living Faith and Community Relations of the NCCA National level more: Interfaith Appeal for Peace

Sydney January 2000
Initiated by the National Council for Churches in Australia & the Australian Federation of Islamic Councils Stand against religious violence in Indonesia
Home of worlds largest Muslim population
World Conference on Religion and Peace
Melbourne 1989
Turning point in interreligious relations in Australia
Interfaith Initiatives
The Australian Council of Christians and Jews
Recognise common heritage + seek to promote understanding
Stand against anti-Semitism
Activities:
Annual Holocaust Remembrance Services
Education Seminars  understanding and respect
Foster broader interfaith relations
The Columbian Centre for Christian-Muslim Relations
Established in response to the Christian Church’s call to enter into Interfaith Relations Main objectives:
Foster relationships with Muslim community
Address lack of understanding, misconceptions, and stereotyping regarding Muslims that exists in the Christian community The Affinity Intercultural Foundation
Established 2001 by young Muslim Australians
Seeks to extend interaction between Muslim community and Australians Promotes tolerance and understanding through education
Aboriginal Reconciliation
Recognizing and respecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’: Special place
Culture
Rights
Contribution
Develop better relationships between the Aboriginals and Non-Aboriginals Organisations
Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation (1991)
Government run
Reconciliation Australia (2001)
Government run
Took over the CAR
Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (1997)
Independent – no political or religious affiliations
National Council of Churches in Australia (1991)
Ecumenical movement
1991 – Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation
Not faith connected, but well supported.
Investigated the desirability and possible outcomes of reconciliation. 27/5/00 - Presented it’s final proposal for a national document of reconciliation. Over 250 000 people walking over the Sydney Harbour Bridge for reconciliation on the 28/5/00. Following this 100’s of 1000’s of people walked across various bridges during Reconciliation week. Christianity and Reconciliation

Take different forms in keeping with the different communities Majority of Indigenous Australians are affiliated with one of more Christian Church Can cause problems
Now Aboriginal Christian Church movements
Particularly within Protestant Churches
Today many Aboriginals have connected The Dreaming to Christianity But it should be more of an integration than a blend.
Problems
Chicka Dixon:
‘For mainstream churches to try to absorb Aboriginal culture is genocidal. We will loose our traditional ways if they try to continue to marry our beliefs into their religious beliefs. It will be one more loss to a ravaged culture – It’s a rape of our religion’ Sorry Day (2008)

Government formally apologised for their past mistakes regarding Aboriginals. Still a conflict within Christian Churches about how to best achieve reconciliation. Injection of Aboriginal spirituality vs. colonisation

Interfaith
Islamic, Buddhist and Jewish groups have made statements supporting reconciliation. Native title
Formal apology to stolen generation
Land rights
Jewish groups hold a yearly, week of prayer for reconciliation. Religion and Non-Religion
The Religious Dimension in Human History
table
New Religious Expressions
The rise of new religious expressions
The search for personal fulfilment
Traditional religions may not provide way of contentment or peace In modern society – traditional religions no longer provide answers – out dated & irrelevant Personal fulfilment through forms of spirituality not part of own religion e.g. yoga & tai chi Dissatisfied with how church deals with sexuality or environment Seeking support from pastors & monks – lack expertise of psychology/psychiatry New ways of healing & emotional distress e.g. acupuncture, Buddhist mediation Explanation about life & universe – science & technology

The search for ethical guidance
Modern society – new ethical issues e.g. cloning, global warming Traditional religious responses irrelevant
Pre-scientific responses inadequate dealing with modern scientific & ethical issues Don’t allow independence & initiative, obedience to authorities, no self-determination/freedom “shopping around” – taking ideas & behaviours from various religions & systems of thinking Traditional religions - punishment & guilt may be reason for choosing new forms Classification of people’s relationship with society

Traditional religions not supportive community
Oppressive e.g. women, minority racial groups
New religions & spiritualties – closer relationships, more meaningful celebrations of stages of life Modern society causing person to seek answers
Political system, consumerism  comfort in less traditional religions & spiritualties Advances in science & technology  fear & anxiety
Desire to gain closer & more meaningful personal relationships Express individualism
Contemporary school of thinking reduce alliance to traditional faiths Many religions with opposing understandings of life  no single religion has answers Traditional deal less with reality & more with superstition

Traditional religions  oppression & disharmony
Clearer relationships in new religions through:
More appropriate rituals
Empowerment based on equality
Simplicity of life & teachings
Emphasis on emotions rather than intellect
Stronger sense of unity of nature & ways to participate in mystical forces of nature Influences on the growth of new religious expressions and spiritualties The rise of materialism
Materialism: the idea that what is important in life is the accumulation of possessions & finance Little acknowledgement of spiritual dimension in humans
Traditional religions materialistic
New religions – values of dignity, respect & freedom
Humans wasting depleting irreplaceable resources in environment to build wealth & power Poverty, unemployment & exploitation  seek new religions to solve ecological & economic problems The influence of scientific progress

Science & technology moving too fast for consideration of consequences Inaccessible to ordinary person
Dangers e.g. global warming, nuclear power
Sciences – objective bodies of knowledge & application, don’t address spiritual side Divert humans from natural purpose & destiny e.g. cloning, in vitro fertilisation Disruption to traditional lifestyles e.g. TV & communication technology disrupting family Reduced society to mindless conformity e.g. mass media

New religions – return to more simple life, in tune with nature & not dependent on machines & tools of science Opposition to advancement of sciences
The growth of ecological awareness
Movements for reducing harmful substances from entering atmosphere & oceans Ensuring humans sustain healthy environment – addressed by new religions Offer stewardship of planet & closely connect with nature

Simple way of living  shared among community
Environmentally friendly produce, recycling wastes
Traditional religions done little to protect environment
Disenchantment with traditional religious practices & guidance Hierarchical structures of power don’t allow sufficient say in nature & direction of religion Male dominance & female oppression

Aging populations – no expression or practices celebrate youth & modern Rituals don’t allow involvement, archaic, impersonal
Past solutions to modern problems
Ethical systems out dated & irrelevant
Traditional religions means for seeking guidance & direction  sciences address anxieties & fears e.g. psychology & psychiatry Responses to modern health problems & concerns ignorant to needs of individual Non-Religious Worldviews

Atheism
Belief that there is no divine power
No reasons to believe in reward/punishment after death
Many aspects of religion superstitious
Good ethical behaviour significant without religious faith
Some forms (e.g. Marxism, communism) find religious dangerous  divert people away from real concerns Atheism and the aspirations and behaviours of individuals
Self-determination, human freedom & ethical behaviour  beneficial to individual & society Sciences can offer appropriate strategies for achieving aspirations & acting ethically Education essential to realise aspirations & learn appropriate behaviour Access to basic human rights means by which person achieves hopes & live life of dignity & respect Just laws & legitimate governments  ethical life

Attitudes towards Atheism
Greatly misunderstood  discrimination & bigotry
Distrusted
Many people equate atheism with immorality (morals come from God  atheists have no morals) Atheists & Morality
Reject notion that morality received under divine revelation Morality & ethical behaviour are natural features of human race & other species Ethical & moral behaviour has superior basis to that of religious adherents (may operate through blind obedience to god/s) Faith based morality  amoral deeds

Bertrand Russell essay “The Faith of a Rationalist” – moral behaviour connected to temprement of individual Attempt to improve conditions on earth as inherent value in improving life here & now Moral relativism

Learn right from wrong through trial & error
Utilitarian
The Meaning of Life
No faith-based restrictions on life  free to make decisions more likely to lead to personal happiness Strong family values & low divorce rates
Refute idea that meaning only possible for those who believe in afterlife All human endeavours find meaning
Would not be motivated to achieve if life continues forever
Life doesn’t have to have intrinsic meaning
Multiple individual meanings
Engaging in worthwhile activities affirming value & meaning
Confidence in ultimate goodness of humankind
Utopia – earthly paradise to come, achieved via higher aspirations of human race Agnosticism
Belief that there is insufficient proof for either God’s existence or non-existence Person should not worry about spiritual/divine dimension
Humans capable of goodness & can contribute to benefit of human society 17th C French philosopher Blaise Pascal – live life believing in God as if there is, rewarded upon death & if not, lived a good life for himself & others Agnosticism and the aspirations and behaviour of individuals All human aspirations (living meaningful & purposeful life) can be achieved through human reason Self-determination: be wholly responsible for life & working out what is best for individual Focus on solving problems of world using modern systems of thought & discovery  relevant Act ethically as humans survive best when all live harmoniously & morally Ethics provide basis for people to determine how they relate to others, duties & responsibilities to each other & world, how nations coexist without war Attitudes towards Agnosticism

Suspicion – hard to understand some individuals can have morality without believing in God God is not required in order for human beings to be moral
Faith-based morality has inspired unethical, immoral actions e.g. suicide bombings Moral relativism – no one answer to ethical question, “sliding scale” of answers depending on variables Utilitarian – ends justifies means

Relying on God & afterlife  reduce motivation to solve problems on Earth Life Fulfilment
Barna Research: better educated, strong family values, lower divorce rate Happiness & freedoms of religious adherents compromised by belief that natural feelings (e.g. anger, pride, lust) are evil & sinful  agnostics free to enjoy life without guilt Humanitarian projects – ultimately pointless (no afterlife) worth carrying out as value here & now Agnostics & God

Some believe in God, maintaining that being & nature of God are essentially unknowable Not able to know & comprehend God  emphasise his majesty & power Thomas Huxley “Father of Agnosticism” – human beings should rely on reason to determine truth Humanism

Emphasis on efforts & abilities of human reason & scientific logic to understand world Rejects notion that truth only discerned through divine revelation Denounce traditional religion as negative, oppressive force

Rejection of God-given codes of behaviour
Humanist Manifesto: Highly ethical, greatest possible freedom for all, duty of care for all humanity & future generations Morality intrinsic part of human nature based on understanding & concern for others, needing no external sanction The position of rational humanism

Proper focus of all human concerns & endeavours is the human Use of human reason to determine actions & thoughts
Uses logic & study, open to intellectual discussion & criticism, avoids prejudice & presumptions to discover what is it to be human Accepts study of sciences & humanities  bring deeper understanding of nature & purpose Recognises exploration of emotional & psychological aspects of humans Doesn’t necessarily mean doesn’t possess religious belief system The position of scientific humanism

Believes the proper study of human is the human
Emphasis on sciences to explain what it is to be human & what humans should do Research & experiment  made public  tested & discussed Study logical, open to examination, broad-based & without presumptions Ideas unable to be tested by science cannot be accepted as truth Humanism and the aspirations and behaviours of individuals

Human reason  how to live good life
Investigation, research & study  determine what it means to be human & appropriate ways to live Offer advice, guidance & direction to individuals about what is right or wrong Human reason developed sciences  ways of bringing happiness for person & society Ethical issues

Decisions based upon best available evidence
Human reason & scientific logic
Moral relativism
Critics:
Choices can be liberal as freedom & autonomy of individual may be given higher priority than other factors Speciesism
Meaning of Life
Do not believe in afterlife
Optimistic outlook & faith in humanity
Meaning in here & now
Humanitarian pursuits – increasing welfare & happiness of human race paramount Many reject idea of finding higher meaning
Well educated, strong family values, low divorse rates
Confidence in abilities of human reason & science  complete understanding & mastery of natural environment & humankind’s place Science & reason  age of peace & harmony

Christianity
Bioethics
The study of the ethical & moral questions involved in the application of new biological & medical findings e.g. euthanasia, in vitro fertilisation, stem cell research Glossary
Ethics
The justification for the reasoning behind human moral behaviour i.e. the principles that explain why an action/inaction is right or wrong Morals
The actual human moral behaviour based on ethics system i.e. the name given to the action/inaction Role of ethics
Allows rational decisions to be made about important moral issues consistent with the beliefs of the tradition (and adherent) Significance of ethics
Guidelines for decisions which can be used by believers in their everyday lives Sacred text
The holy books of the tradition
Scripture = “that which is written down”
Sacred story
Stories that communicate the essential truths of the tradition. Many text types: narrative, recount, myth, parable etc
Record the life & example of a significant sacred person e.g. Jesus, Mohammad Beliefs
The core truths of a religious tradition often stated in a creed or list of requirements e.g. Christianity – Nicene Creed

What is Ethics?
Standards of behaviour – provides reasons for how human beings out to act in situations Practical application of belief – system by which conduct deemed appropriate or not Apply to everyone
Most religions advocate high ethical standards
Good systems of law incorporate many ethical standards
Sources of Ethical Standards
1. Utilitarian approach: produces the greatest balance of good over harm 2. Rights approach: best protects & respects the moral rights of those affected 3. Fairness/Justice approach: ethical actions treat all human beings equally-or if unequally, fairly 4. Common Good approach: interlocking relationships of society are basis of ethical reasoning – respect & compassion for all are requirements 5. Virtue approach: ethical actions ought to be consistent with certain ideal virtues that provide for the full development of humanity Christianity

Christian ethics based on right relationships with:
God
Neighbour
Oneself
Guide living according to beliefs
Key sources:
Ten commandments
Beatitudes
Jesus’ Commandment of Love
Diverse ethical standpoints on bioethics in different Christian churches using sources such as authority, tradition, episcopal leadership e.g. Protestant  Bible, Catholic & Orthodox natural law, Pentecostal  pastor Traditional Christian ethics grounded either in natural law (actions that go against human nature are wrong) or a Bible-based approach Moral absolutes e.g. homosexuality is wrong

Some contemporary theologians suggest situational ethics (based on certainty of love – depends on context) are a more appropriate Christian approach  based on Jesus’ law of love Sources of Christian Ethics

Catholic
Protestant
Orthodox
Scripture
Scripture
Scripture
Holy Tradition: writings of Church fathers passed down through the centuries Natural Law
Situation Ethics
Based on each situation & responding with love – agape (unselfish love) Holy Tradition
Authority – binding
Magisterium: teaching authority of Church developed over time e.g: Infallible statements by Pope
Encyclicals (letters) by Pope
Statements from Vatican’s congregations
Writings of Fathers of early Church
Lesser authority of local bishops, priests etc
Authority – guidance
e.g:
Statements of archbishops & bishops
Synods (Anglican)
Assemblies
Authority – strongly advised
Statements by Church leadership & Patriarchs

Scripture: primary source for all variants, containing:
Rules: 10 Commandments
Prayers: Our Father
Sacred story: New Testament
Teachings of Jesus: Beatitudes
Example of Jesus’ life
Letters of Paul
Natural Law
Higher law existing beyond human laws:
Code of precepts of good & proper conduct – nature & human reason laid down definite order of things to be done & avoided Known through human reason & God’s revelation in Scriptures & Tradition Unchanging order of universe established by God

Humans are moral if they are faithful to these God-given laws which govern nature Absolute approach: it is wrong to act against nature i.e. killing, stealing, suicide, abortion, contraception, IVF, homosexuality Primary precept: love God & neighbour as purpose of life

Proportionalists – no absolute norms
If primary purpose good but secondary effect not – acceptable morally e.g. removing cancerous uterus to save mother may result in killing a foetus Situation Ethics
Anglican theologian Joseph Fletcher 1966
Based on centrality of love & holds that actions are not right or wrong in themselves but depend on context in which action is performed Jesus came to do away with legalistic approach to religion – abolished rule based approach to ethics & established law of love 1. Legalistic approach to ethics: ethical decisions made by reference to set of fixed & unalterable rules however how it is understood & applied may be discussed 2. Anti-nomian, lawless or unprincipled approach: rejection of rules as external constraints 3. Situational approach & law of love: based on love – central in Christian decision making The Four Working Principles

1. Pragmatism: proposed action should work & do so according to the standards set by Agape 2. Personalism: love people in pro-active way as ethics deal with human relations 3. Relativism: up to reason, working towards goal of the greatest sum of agape 4. Positivism: basis for morality is religious experience of the person

Love & justice are the same, for justice is love distributed Only the end justifies the means
Problems
Condemned in Vatican document “Veritatis Splendour” 1993 Condemned by Pope Pius XII 1952 – justifies actions in opposition to Natural Law Common good of society benefits from clear cut rules for behavious Individual may not be sufficiently informed to make decision “in love” Person experiencing situation for first time & emotionally involved may not be able to make ethical decision Difficult to decide what is the “loving” thing to do as outcomes may vary Not sufficient – rules are needed to guide behaviour

Lots of responsibility & freedom
Bioethics
The study of the ethical & moral questions involved in the application of new biological & medical findings As scientific knowledge & experimentation increase, more life issues raised Key Christian belief challenged is value/sanctity of human life Principles:

Human life has profound dignity – it is sacred & deserves respect Good intentions do not justify evil actions
A person must use ordinary means to preserve his/her life
Every human life is valuable
Jesus continues to teach through his church – consult teachings of church Euthanasia
Life is sacred gift from God  should be preserved
Medical care  prolong life through use of technology
Question: what is the quality of life that can be achieved for a person & is sustaining life at any cost appropriate? Fifth Commandment: “You shall not murder”
Bible – no specific teachings on euthanasia
Ongoing illness – quality of life not maintained
Suffering & pain part of being human & through pain can arrive at some understanding of Jesus Christ’s sacrifice Catholic teaching
Based on principles of natural law
Ordinary means: necessary & reasonable for preservation of life Extraordinary means: out of balance with outcome
Balance – maintaining pain relief & not hastening death
Pain relief – death cannot be sought even if risk of it is reasonably taken Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1997: euthanasia is murder, gravely contrary to the dignity of human person & the respect due to God Anglican teaching

Similar to Catholic
Assisting person to die is a moral evil & may make sick/dying people vulnerable Successfully challenged “Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill” in 2006 Hospice Movement 1967 – terminally ill people can be given specialist care, manage pain but also support emotionally & spiritually Society of Friends (Quaker)

Not united
Some believe people should be allowed to die with dignity with option of legal euthanasia Others believe that if we care for each other with proper support & pain relief it is not needed Principles for Bioethics

Relationships with God, others & ourselves – judged by actions & relationships God – one objective source of morality, natural law is expression of God’s eternal law Man has innate dignity as image of God’s likeness

Moral conduct is human response to the creative love of God

1. Must be a moral code & moral justification: “Love your neighbour as yourself” & sanctity of life 2. Patient autonomy: individual self-determination – right to accept or refuse treatment 3. Beneficence: help others – traditional role of physician as Good Samaritan 4. Non-malfeasance: never harm anyone

5. Justice: fairness, respect, social justice
6. Respect doctor-patient relationship: privacy, informed consent, trustworthy, truthful 7. Physician must be diligent in developing a virtuous character: moral integrity Christianity – Bioethics Overview

Approach
Catholic
Protestant
Orthodox
What system of ethics is applied to decision making?
Natural Law
Rights Approach

Rights Approach
Situation Ethics  Utilitarian/Consequentialist
Natural Law
Rights Approach
What are the key sources of ethical guidance?
Scripture
Natural Law
Authority (binding)  Magisterium

Scripture
Natural Law
Situation Ethics
Authority (guidance)
Scripture
Natural Law
Holy Tradition
Authority (binding)  Church Hierarchy

Stem Cell Research

Catholic
Protestant
What is the position on stem cell research?
It’s okay if the embryo is treated with the same dignity/respect/rights as a human life.

Same as Catholicism – it is okay to use to benefit the life of the embryo, but not okay to destroy it/use for scientific research What is the basis of this position?
All human life is holy and must be treated with the respect and integrity it deserves. Therefore using pre natal diagnosis, for example, to determine whether or not to abort a child is wrong.

The embryo is the beginning of human life and must be treated with the dignity, respect and rights it deserves. What are the issues or problems involved in this position?
E.g. knowing a child has a genetic disorder such as Down’s Syndrome before birth gives the option of abortion, the reasoning being the child’s life would not be of great quality.

That some people say embryos coming from IVF might as well be used for research if they are going to die anyway, but this is not the case – according to Anglicanism.

It is okay to let the embryos die but not to use them.
What are the sources that support this position?
Pope John Paul II, Encyclical Evangelium vitae
Catechism
10 Commandments
Jesus’ Commandment of Love
Archbishop Peter Jenson
Catechism
10 Commandments
Jesus’ Commandment of Love

Euthanasia

Catholic
Protestant
Orthodox
What is the position on euthanasia?
Euthanasia is morally unacceptable.
However, medical intervention may be ceased

Against all forms of Euthanasia

Pro-life stance
Accompanies the faithful through all steps of life
What is the basis of this position?
It goes against God’s will
All life is sacred
Constitutes as murder, gravely contrary to the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God. Murderous, act which is forbidden and excluded.
However, painkillers are permitted to alleviate pain. Medical intervention may be ceased, decided by the individual or their next of kin, if they are unable to speak for themselves. Eg turning of life support. Life is a gift from God which is not to be taken

Fears that voluntary Euthanasia may become involuntary Euthanasia Believe that we should share in Jesus’ experiences, victory over death, sin and evil Established through sacred prayers, text, role models – Jesus What are the issues or problems involved in this position?

Everyone has the right to live/ die in a way that they consider to be respectful and dignified. May alleviate pain
Prevents a person from dying without pain and with dignity. Prevents a person from dying with dignity and respect
What are the sources that support this position?
Scripture references; the fourth commandment, ‘Thou shalt not kill’ ‘A man can have no greater love than to lay down his life for his friends’ Jn15:13

Calls upon government to improve palliative care funding.
Urges members of state legislature to vote against Euthanasia Scripture references

IVF

Catholic
Anglican
Lutheran
What is the position on IVF?
Unacceptable as human embryo has right to proper respect
Acceptable in cases of infertility & inheritable disorders
Supports scientific & social endeavours to assist & correct nature in the prevention of childlessness & restore & maintain the possibility for married couples to form a family What is the basis of this position?

Against human rights – can’t be frozen, manipulated or left to die Marriage proper place for sexual activity
It is natural for couples to want to produce & raise children Positive affirmation of the family
Recognises that involuntary childlessness has become a burden to married couples God is giver of love  endeavours to render compassionate pastoral care & advice What are the issues or problems involved in this position?

Demands of science don’t take precedent over human person
Allocations of resources for health services
Procedure should be confined to married couples who have found themselves to be infertile Opposes infertility treatments which deprive the child of genetic heritage of 2 parents Reject procedures which involve intentional harm to/destruction to embryos What are the sources that support this position?

1990 Catholic Truth Society
Catechism of the Catholic Church 1994
Genesis 1:26 Human beings made in image of God
Church of England, Human Fertilisation & Embryology, 1984
Archbishop of Sydney, Peter Jensen 2000
Genesis 30:3 Rachel’s invitation to Jacob to take her slave Bilhah so that “I may also obtain children by her” Genesis 1:26 Human beings made in image of God
General Synod at 1987 convention
Luther
Justification through faith alone (not good works) through Christ alone as only mediator between God & humanity using Scripture as only authority State of Catholic Church in late 15th Century
Corrupt
Dominated by idea of “salvation by works”
Bishop had great deal of power, Church political body
Church courts could try lay-people, even on non-spiritual matters Stress on penance
Illegal acts by Church could take place without retribution
Sale of indulgences (pardons from purgatory) to fund building of St Peter’s Basilica in Rome Laity uneducated
Priests often uneducated, absent or led corrupt lives
Authorities relied upon for salvation
Elaborate masses, ornate etc – uninvolved participation (Latin, no scripture, no singing) Clergy in privileged position
Conditions that allowed for Martin Luther’s success
German cities & princes supported as could see political gain (had great deal of political independence  Emperor Charles V unable to stop spread & many princes indecisive so didn’t prevent Bishops had power so nobility tried to be appointed but Italians favoured by Rome  resentment Laity fed up with corrupt Church – luxury of clergy

Agitation to see church come under secular control
Church could try people over secular matters  resentment
Large problems of order & public peace, no control
Feuds, disrupted trade (no uniform coinage), no efficient legal system, positions of power fought over, nobility above law Universities & graduates flourishing but no job opportunities  intellects fed up with system, wanted to be agents of chance Theological ideas interested intelligentsia  theological debate PRINTING PRESS allowed for spread of Luther’s ideas

Contribution

What Luther changed/challenged
Impact on development & expression

Effect on the whole of Christianity long term
THEOLOGY
(big ideas)
Faith alone- justification
Scripture alone
Christ alone
Grace alone
95 theses (penance)
Consubstantiation
Priesthood of all believers
Theology of the cross
Challenge power of Catholic Church & its practices e.g. indulgences, relics etc Denied Magisterium
Catalyst to Protestant Reformation – Schism – Catholic, Lutheranism & Calvinism Encouraged Catholic Church reform – Pope Paul III – Council of Trent 1545 Addressed abuses (rid indulgences)
Educated priesthood
Reaffirmed 7 sacraments, authority of Pope & priest celibacy ECCLESIOLOGY
How the church is organised
No ordained clergy
No Papal authority
Individual faith vs authoritarian faith
Shut down monasteries
Married clergy
Counter Reformation (denominations e.g. Calvinism and Lutheranism) Denied authority of priests as middle agent/mediator between God & humans Denied penance as sacrament  indulgences
Encouraged personal relationships with God
Covenants and monasteries closed
Challenged & angered Catholic Church
Created new structure based on God, scripture & personal relationship LITURGY
(how we pray and celebrate)
Both bread and wine
Consubstantiation
2 Sacraments (Eucharist and Baptism)
Congregational singing “A mighty fortress is our God”
Simplified Liturgy
No vestments
No statues
Catechisms
Scripture in German
Common people could understand scripture & involvement in liturgy => personal interpretations & personal faith/relationship with God As it was in scripture – last supper
Made Christ focus of mass not priest
Involvement & participation increase
Mass – focus on Eucharist
Less distraction
Education & personal responsibility for faith
Emphasise authority of scripture – baptism & Eucharist only sacraments in scripture

Quotes:
Martin Luther:
Unless I am convinced by testimonies from Scripture… my conscience is bound by the Word of God That is why faith alone makes someone just and fulfils the law. Faith is that which brings the Holy Spirit through the merits of Christ Faith alone justifies us

Smalcald Articles
The just shall live by faith
Romans 1:17
Baptism
Rite to mark purification, commitment & inclusion in religion Jesus baptised by John the Baptist in River Jordan (Mark 1:9) Signifier that he would baptise not with holy water but with the Holy Spirit Jesus instructed followers to baptise people in his name (Matthew 28:19) Marks admission of an individual into Christian churches

Infant baptism practiced since early times – early 3rd C Tertullian mentioned & Hippolytus of Rome wrote detailed instructions on how to conduct

How baptism expresses Christian beliefs
BELIEFS OF CHRISTIANITY:
Divinity & humanity
Scripture
Trinity
Death/Resurrection
Salvation
Forgiveness of sin
One Catholic Church
Jesus as model for Christian living
Roam Catholic, Anglican & Greek Orthodox – believe important the child brought up in faith of community & offered salvation through church Baptist, Churches of Christ, Evangelical – adult/believer’s baptism  more faithful to New Testament Pool in church or beach/river

Recognises person’s dedication of life to Christ
Naming/dedication ceremony held for baby rather than baptismal right Anglican & Baptist churches use service of day – include baptismal right as part of church service Roman Catholic & Greek Orthodox – separate service

Society of Friends (Quakers) – outward rights (baptism) not necessary. Child raised as Quaker must confirm readiness to join community as adult Salvation Army – doesn’t baptise (dangers in heavy dependence on ceremonies & rituals Must study ways of Army, acknowledge allegiance & pray for God’s help in keeping promise The significance of baptism

Rite of passage
Marks transition from outside community via initiation into new life in Christian church Salvation – key teaching of baptism (Acts 2:38)
Analysis
Baptismal Rite
Name
“Baptism” – Greek: to dip, plunge, immerse
Ritual from early times – Jesus called on followers to baptise in his name Mentioned by historians Tertullian & Christian presbyter Hippolytus of Rome Principal beliefs
Acknowledgement & commitment by candidate (or parents & godparents) to core beliefs of Christianity: Divinity & humanity of Jesus
God & the Trinity
Revelation
Salvation
Readings from scripture & words of prayers re-affirm these beliefs The individual’s connection to beliefs
Initiates candidate into Christian community
Symbolism (water, candle, oil, new garment) reminds candidate & community of connection to church Relation to the Christian community
Reaffirms community’s commitment to own baptismal promises Community more aware than candidate (baby) of commitment to faith & role in assisting candidate in remaining part of church

Significance for the Individual
Significance for the Community
Rite to mark purification, commitment and inclusion
Shows that the individual desires to follow the example set by Jesus in his own baptism by john Follow the command or directive of Jesus (Matthew 28:18-19)
Some churches – for salvation
Protestant external symbol of internal or spiritual commitment Emphasis of individual becoming one with Christ
Born into new life with Christ
Acknowledgment and commitment by candidate to core beliefs of Christianity e.g. Trinity, divinity, humanity of Christ, death/resurrection Transformation – necessary for salvation which is a spiritual transformation and believe that heaven is restricted to only those baptised Connection with Christian Heritage

scripture
symbols & gesture
ritual
Assume responsibilities as a member of the Body of Christ: participating in the mission of the Church (building the Kingdom of God) Rite of passage
Transformation: outward expression of inner change
Birth/rebirth motif: share in the death & resurrection of Christ Introduces individual to life guided by Holy Spirit
Gift of grace of God
Personal commitment to Christ (variants – infant v adult)
Positive concept of individual submitting to concepts and will of community of faith Differences disappear
Unites all individuals with Jesus’ death and resurrection
Individual as part of complex body (Romans 12:4-5)
Public message of faith to community
Part of a community of believers that extends to the past and into the future Social and earthly transformation
Person welcomed and initiated into sharing the mission of Jesus in the world e.g. uniting church – the baptised is united in the fellowship of love, service, suffering and joy Baptised people are the Christian community of faith

The symbolism (water, candle, garment) reminds the candidate and community of the connection to the church Renewal of community’s commitment to Christ
Opportunity for reflection on life of faith and beliefs
Continuity of Christian heritage: ancient ritual/practice linked to the earliest Christian communities Community strengthened through the role of support of a new member: responsibility for the preparation and continuing formation of the spiritual life of the individual Sponsors & godparents  representatives of the faith of the community Community’s role as witness to living tradition

Quotes:
Jesus baptised by John in the Jordan Matthew 3:13-17
Go out to the whole world, proclaim the Good News to all creation. He who believes and is baptised will be saved; he who does not will be condemned. Mk 16:16
You must repent…and every one of you must be baptised in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit Acts 2:38
There is one Lord, one faith, one baptism
Ephesians 4:5
We believe in one baptism for the forgiveness of sins…
Nicene Creed
Having put on Christ
Gal 3:27
Buddhism
Dali Lama
Contribution (what he does)
Impact (effect)
Popularised the Eastern Philosophy into secular Western societies Ambassador for Buddhism
Caused Buddhism to spread into world of West with its materialism & greed Making it appealing to Western world
Spiritual leader of Tibetan people
Spread message of peace & harmony, tolerance & renunciation of desires of anger, mistrust, fear & revenge Shows that people must put belief into action to make it worthwhile Head of state (in exile) of the State of Tibet

Public Western face of Buddhism  de facto leader of Western Buddhists Affected understanding & attitudes of world community to Buddhism Involved in peace talks with Chinese government
Tireless worker for religious & secular rights & freedoms for Tibetans Represented Tibetan Government in exile around the world & taken lead in promulgating constitutional matters, international law reform & international religious & political understanding Tried to affect lives of Buddhists by supporting peace & freedom in his political & international world Showed that monks can do great things on the world stage

Provides faith & guidance in the face of the Communist in position of PRC

Inspires Tibetan Buddhists in the face of the growing Chinese presence within their country Tibetan Buddhists maintain their culture and traditions
Is the focus of mantras and chants
Allow adherents to focus on trying to attain his level of wisdom & compassion 1950 – 1959: Attempted to peacefully negotiate with the Beijing regime to bring about liberation for Tibet. Ensure peace and compassion in the world

With refugees that followed him from Tibet to India he established an educational system for children based on a curriculum of traditional language, culture history and religion. Responsible for the survival of Tibetan Buddhism

Allowed Tibetan Buddhism to grow and thrive, even though they had fled Tibet 1959 – Founded the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies which became the tertiary educational centre of Tibetans in India Higher level of education of Tibetans – greater understanding of religion

Focused his attention on reclaiming independent for Tibet and people, through non-violent and peaceful methods Promoting traditional Buddhist philosophy in a modern world Made himself a model for global adherents of Buddhism

Contributed to the formulation and reassessment of Buddhist approach to ethical issues – through his endorsement of the Dalai Lama Foundation Hoped to promote peace and ethics around the world.
Leads to a clearer understanding on ethical issues such as environment, abortion, women and homosexuality. Embarked on tours of 63 nations on 6 continents with 300 visits up until 2005 Raised the profile, image and global awareness of Buddhism

Extensive travel to foreign lands.
Successfully expanded the adherence of Buddhism beyond its centre of Asian and the east into the western continents Successfully forged Buddhism as a global religion in the modern world. Presented speeches that have assisted in shaping Buddhist approached and philosophy to modern ethical issues. Direct impact on the design and formulation of Buddhist thought on current issues and contentious debate amongst all world religions Authored or been consulted on at least 72 books which have been published in English He has been directly responsible for the translation of complex religious concepts into everyday language, thereby increasing the accessibility of Buddhist philosophy to the west. During self-imposed exile he established a number of institutions and enlisted the support of a number of influential nations and figures to bring about a peaceful resolution to the political situation in Tibetan Buddhism and its teaching and traditions. Commitment and determination displayed to the survival and future of the Tibetan school of Buddhism. Travelled, write books, gave speeches

Spread of Tibetan Buddhism
Teachings on compassion, peace, happiness
Appeals to people in the West which is full of materialism, violence and secularism. Has come forward with constructive and forward looking proposals for the solution of international conflicts, human rights issues and global environmental problems. Aims for international peace and compassion

In 1954 the Dalai Lama went to Peking to talk with Mao Tse-Tung and other Chinese leaders to try to achieve peace  
He had a series of meetings with PM of India about the deteriorating conditions in Tibet. When forced to exile in 1959 India gave him a place to live - Dharamsala Appealed to the UN on the question of Tibet

Three resolutions adopted by the General Assembly in 1959, 1961 and 1965 Set up educational, cultural and religious institutions
Preserves the Tibetan identity and heritage
Proposed a 5-point peace plan to make Tibet a zone of peace.  
Met with many Westerners and visited many countries.
Publicised Buddhism
Met with religious leaders  (Jewish and Catholic)
Promoted interfaith dialogue
Teaches about the relative unimportance of national distinction and that human are all essentially the same. Promotes the values of Buddhism and has not reacted negatively against China for the situation in Tibet. Teaches: ‘Don’t hate your enemy – he is a person like you’ and ‘I believe violence will only increase the cycle of violence’ Promotes the values of Buddhism and has not reacted negatively against China for the situation in Tibet. Devised a Five Point Peace Plan

Eventually led to some resolutions
Through the exile in Dharamsala has continued the practise of Tibetan Buddhism Ensure the continuation of Vajrayana Buddhism
Led Tibetans-in-exile to migrate all over the world.
Spread Vajrayana Buddhism to new countries and aided its continuation. Travelling, writing books and speeches
Spreading Tibetan Buddhism’s wisdom and values.
1963- Developed a democratic constitution that will be implemented when/if Tibet is free.

Became fully active leader of Tibet in 1950
Influenced, stood up for, supported and guided people of Tibet. Spent several decades in consultation with leaders of Chinese communist party trying to convince them to leave Tibet free/ treat Tibetans with more respect and kindness. Toured the world seeking support from governments for the freedom of Tibet. Promoting a peaceful resolution to the conflict in Tibet through being compassionate. This encourages others to be more compassionate and peaceful in their dealings with others. Regularly published books on various aspects of Tibetan Buddhism and Buddhism in general. Guide Buddhists as to how they should behave, how to meditate, how to reject desire, how to become more passionate and wise  leading them on path to enlightenment. Message of peace, and Buddhism as a tool of peace.

Guiding people as to how they should act/ they kind of mind frame they should uphold- leading them to spiritual enlightenment. He is a Bodhisattva: Reincarnation of 14th Dali Lama
Acts as a role model for the way Buddhists should behave/ reach enlightenment. He teaches selflessness by giving up escaping samara to help other sentient beings on their journey to enlightenment. Since the Chinese invasion, His Holiness has appealed to the UN on the questions of Tibet. Process of negotiations with Chinese Government.

Stated his willingness to negotiate with China for genuine autonomy. Promoting a peaceful resolution to the conflict in Tibet through being compassionate. This encourages others to be more compassionate and peaceful in their dealings with others. It is also helping Tibetans in their process to gain independence by having such a strong figurehead. 1963- His Holiness presented a draft democratic constitution for Tibet that was followed by a number of reforms to democratise the administrative set-up. The new democratic constitution promulgated as a result of this reform was named “The Charter of Tibetans in Exile”- it enshrines freedom of speech, belief, assembly and movement. Promoting Tibetans having freedom and independence.

Uncompromising attitude towards non-violence and his unquestioned moral authority among the Tibetan Mission of pace, non-violence and human rights.
Promoting the development of peaceful, compassionate relationships. Crucial teaching role, especially in terms of compassion in relation to the Eightfold Path and other key Buddhist beliefs Helps to guide Buddhists on their path to enlightenment.

Names:
Dali Lama: deep ocean leader
Kundan: the presence (of compassion and Buddha)
Chenrezig: Boditsatfa of compassion – names of enlightened being Sexual Ethics
One of 5 precepts of pancasilam (ethical behaviour):
“I undertake the precept to avoid misconduct in matters of sensual pleasure Primary undertaking: to avoid causing suffering either to oneself or others when engages in sensual pleasure No specific codes that spell out misconduct

Varying cultures with different understandings of family structures Bad karma created when sex is had with another person who is in a permanent relationship with another person outside marriage e.g. engages, under protection of another (young) Some cultures see premarital sex as breaking precept (Sri Lanka), others judge seriousness of act according to virtue of woman Four Noble Truths – cause of suffering is desire  end of suffering when person reduces/ceases to desire sexual behaviour Sexual behaviour that would bring about scandal/disgust – bad karma Sexual act undertaken against will of another – bad karma

Masturbation not primarily a breach although entails desire  suffering Monks – requires meeting of Sangha for intentional emission of semen (committed to removing all desires & cravings) Consistent condemnation of homosexuality throughout most of Buddhism Some acceptance of homosexuality as long as it avoids harm to person & others

Virtues
Dana: generosity
Karuna: compassion
Mindfulness: control of desire
Ahimsa: non-violence
Metta: loving kindness
Guiding Principles
Do what is good
Avoid what is evil
Practice so the mind is clear
Virtue
Source
Case Study
Ahimsa (non-violence)
3rd Precept:
‘Not to indulge is harmful sexual activity’

Jakata Stories:
“Be respectful of all beings, Never harm any lives”

Mindfulness (control of desire)
4 Noble Truths:
cause of suffering is craving

Sexual Ethics Table
Pilgrimage
What is Pilgrimage?
Pilgrimage: an outward journey to a sacred shrine that brings about an inner growth and development of the pilgrim’s faith and spirituality Origins
Before Buddha died he told his disciples to visit four places for the inspiration after he was gone: Lumbini: where the Buddha was born, often accompanied with miraculous events in Buddhist writings Bodhgaya: where he achieved enlightenment

The Deer Park in Sarnath: where he preached his first sermon and developed many of the concepts associated with Buddhism, such as the Four Noble Truths Kushinagar: where he died and passed into mahaparinibbana (reached nirvana) The Lord Buddha expressed the importance of pilgrimages and instructed his disciples that after his cremation his ashes were to be collected and placed in a stupa. There was a dispute among the eight surrounding kingdoms about which of them should possess his ashes and finally they were divided among the kingdoms while the urn containing the ashes became another important pilgrimage site. Later the ground upon which the Lord Buddha was cremated became a site for pilgrimages. King Asoka

As early as 250BCE, Ashoka announced in his inscriptions that he had visited the birthplace of the Buddha in Lumbini and helped refurbish the Bodhi temple at Bodh Gaya which is the first publicised account of pilgrimage sites He undertook pilgrimages to the three major sites of Lumbini, Bodh Gaya and Sanath He established roadside centres for providing refreshments and temporary accommodation for pilgrims going to these spots He attended discussions with the monks of the Sangha, gave generous donations to the Sangha and offered temple puja Understood that pilgrimage was a means to strengthening and uniting the Buddhist tradition and so created many new sites for ordinary people to gain access for their own spiritual development. Sent cuttings of the Bodhi Tree to Sri Lanka

The 3 Stages of Pilgrimage
Preparation:
adherents may increase practices of devotion (puja) or mediation (Samadhi). undertake to observe more precisely the five precepts of ethical behaviour or decide to adopt while on the pilgrimage one of more of the extra five precepts undertaken by monks and nuns (e.g. fast from midday and to avoid distracting entertainment) Pilgrimage Journey:

adherents might choose to visit shrines and holy places other than the shrine of their destination. attend temple puja and be guided by monks or nuns at these shrines while also giving donations. on arrival at the main pilgrimage site, adherents will attend temple puja, performing most of the practices involved, joining in the chanting of the monks and being guided into a better understanding of prajna, sila and Samadhi Return Home:

pilgrims may well guide others into a better practice of Buddhism and inform them about their experience of the variety of Buddhism often found at important pilgrimage sites. they may bring back to their village religious objects for veneration by the community or texts to be used by the local community to develop understanding about the teachings of Buddhism Main Pilgrimage Sites

These sites are closely associated with the Buddha and scenes of his principal miracles. Lumbini:
In the Himalayan kingdom of Nepal.
The birthplace of Prince Siddhartha Gautama, who later became the Buddha. Queen Maya Devi of the Sakya clan was on her way to her parental home when she gave home to the prince under the tree. Bodh Gaya:

Where the Buddha sat in meditation on the diamond seat under the Bodhi tree where he reached enlightenment. The Deer Park in Sarnath:
Where Buddha gave his first significant sermons on the Middle Way, the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path to his five fellow seekers who became the first monks of the order. Kushinagar:
Where Buddha died in a Saal forest and attained nirvana at the age of 80 Beliefs Expresses in Pilgrimage
BELIEF
EXPRESSION IN PILGRIMAGE
Buddha
Reliving the path Buddha took in his own Pilgrimages towards enlightenment Places relevant to Buddha’s life that they visit include:
Lumbini: birthplace (in Nepal)
Bodh Gaya: the place of his Enlightenment (in the current Mahabodhi Temple). Sarnath: (formally Isipathana) where he delivered his first teaching. Kusinara: (now Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India) where he died. Dharma

Before entering the shrine they make three prostrations to revere the Three Refuges (Buddha, Dharma, Sangha) Use the opportunity of pilgrimage to acknowledge previous faults and make vows of future devotion and practice Many of the pilgrimage sites present opportunities to listen to the teachings of the Buddha and receive instruction on them Pilgrims can join in with the recitation of the Dharma with members of the Sangha, and the decorations of the temple and adjoining buildings Dharma can be recited with the use of malas (prayer beads) and the turning of prayer wheels found at most Tibetan shrines Sangha

Three prostrations at shrine (3 refuges: Buddha, Dharma, Sangha) Monasteries are often attached to shrines
Monks lead adherents in chants, prayers and acts of reverence Monks and nuns deliver instruction and guidance to the pilgrims Pilgrims give donations of food and other items e.g. financial assistance to the Sangha Pilgrimage is a journey that the whole Buddhist community takes Pilgrims will report back to their communities about their experiences as well as bring back relics and texts to develop the spirituality of the community and educate them further in the dharma Nirvana

Pilgrimage helps development of the inner spiritual journey for progression towards nirvana. In Tibet, in the chanting of “To the diamond jewel of nirvana and in the insight and mercy of samsara”, the pilgrim recalls the reality of the afterlife and goal of spiritual development. By undergoing pilgrimage, adherent shows their belief in a reality beyond ordinary life, and that they personally are responsible for gaining this reality of nirvana. Karma

Giving of donations food or money to the Sangha for good karma Through generosity(dana) adherents may achieve or pass on good karma Noble truths
Practice is taken to progress towards enlightenment.
Pilgrimage is a physically demanding journey which can cause suffering Attachment is renounced as pilgrims focus totally on their spirituality- often taking on extra ethical precepts e.g. fasting Bodhisattva

Some Buddhists may seek out statues of bodhisattvas to worship or seek guidance

Significance of Pilgrimage
Importance to the Individual
Gives an adherent Buddhist identity: outward sign that the pilgrim is committed to their beliefs and engages them in their personal spiritual journey towards enlightenment and nirvana Opportunity for deeper reflection on Buddhist beliefs- adherent shows belief in a reality beyond ordinary life and emphasises their personal sole responsibility for gaining this reality. The pilgrimage site may have a particular spiritual force that will aid the pilgrim in life Journey to shrine removes distractions of ordinary life and therefore reduces cravings, reducing dukkha Pilgrim gains better discipline and Buddhist practice

Shrines give pilgrim insight into the teachings and life of Lord Buddha Act of pilgrimage: brings about good karma that will bring better samsara, or reduce bad karma from previous lives Improves prajna through guidance and instruction

Develops pilgrims ethical life- opportunities for acts of generosity and compassion, practice of humility and courage, greater time and effort for meditation Strengthens understanding of the Sangha- whose lives serve as models for the pilgrim and gives them guidance and teaching Pilgrims comes into contact with different forms of Buddhism that may be unfamiliar to them- introduces individual to diversity of Buddhism, which may challenge their beliefs or give them an experience of shared faith Importance to Community:

Gives identity to the community that is supporting and encouraging its members to undergo pilgrimage The community recognises that this is a significant and extraordinary means of developing the spiritual life. It shows the beliefs held by the community. May strengthen the bonds of the community, particularly if the community has shared its resources so that the person can undergo the pilgrimage. (Eg. Providing support for the pilgrim’s family) For those communities attached to the shrine or site, pilgrimage provides increased wealth and prestige. In particular, the community of the sangha gains great benefits from bequests and donations Pilgrims will contribute to a better understanding of Buddhism from the home community by giving instruction and guidance on their return. The pilgrim may be a model for others. Through the experience of the pilgrim, the community is introduced to the variety of Buddhist teachings and practices. This informs the community of other schools of Buddhism and the international Buddhist community. Pilgrimage also connects the community to this ancient traditional custom. It therefore provides a link between the community and the broader religious tradition. Pilgrimage in Buddhist Variants

The pilgrim will venerate the statue(s) of the Lord Buddha in the vihara (shrine room in Theravada Buddhism) or in the gompa (Vajrayana Buddhism) In Mahayana Buddhism, pilgrims will also find statues of other Buddhas (e.g. Amitaba) or Bodhisattvas (e.g. Avalokitesvara) The Dharma can be recited with the use of malas (prayer beads) and with the turning of the prayer wheels found at most Tibetan shrines In Tibet, in the chanting of “To the diamond jewel of nirvana in the insight and mercy of samsara” the pilgrim recalls the reality of the afterlife and the goal of spiritual development In Vajrayana Buddhism pilgrims use thangkas (spiritual images) as aids for meditation and worship

Islam
Sufism
The mystical branch of Islam that begun about 100 years after the birth of Muhammad Both Sunni & Shia Muslims however criticised as not being truly Islamic & a misinterpretation of Qur’an & Hadith Arabic = Tasawwuf

Emphasis on personal union of Allan with individual & aims to develop in its followers a sense of self-knowledge and to have a loving relationship with Allah Tariqa: inward path, can come to know Allah internally, stages achieved through repentance, abstinence, renunciation, poverty, patience & trust in Allah Sufi orders: Chishti, Naqshbandi, Mevlevi

Head of order: Shaykh
Control nafs  rid mind of self-ego
Dhikir: individual meditates on one aspect of Islam i.e. verse from Qur’an – recitation = zekhr “Night Flight” of Muhammad – hope to one day have miraj or ecstatic rising up to heaven (higher self achieved before death) Inspired poetry, music, dance & literature

Significant People
Rabi’a al-Adawiyya
713 CE – 801 CE
Introduces idea of “Divine love for God” – central theme of Sufism & one of key practices/aims of Sufism Changed asceticism into mysticism – Sufi ideal of love of God that was disinterested, without hope for paradise & without fear of hell “My Lord, if I worship You from fear of hell, burn me in hell, and if I worship You from hope of Paradise, exclude me thence, but if I worship You for your own sake, then withhold not from me Your eternal beauty.” Great Sufi poet – poetry accentuated divine connection between individual & Allah & expressed mystical communication with God Gender role model – women in leadership

Example of purity – Islamic wali (saint)
Encouragement of women to participate fully in Islamic religious tradition Al-Ghazali
1058 – 1111 CE
Book “The Incoherence of the Philosophers” – criticized a number of Aristotle’s philosophical points, particularly: The world is eternal & that it will not end
God is not all knowing
There is no life after death
These are untruths & used Islamic philosophy, theology & mysticism to argue against these Aristotelian ideas & prove Allah’s existence & power, that God was the creator of all occasions Prime developer of Islamic philosophy

Found “indubitable truth” the practice of Sufism
Argued that Sufism was the best way to express the core concepts and beliefs of Islam & that the divine connection with God can be obtained through mystical experiences such as revelation of the word of God Individuals could find God’s truth in the ecstatic state of fana’of Sufism – self-annihilation & entering into personal mystical union with Allah Contributed to development & expression of Islam through his teaching & ideas being accepted to a point by the mainstream of Islam at the time of his life “Renewer of Islam”

Abd Al-Wadir Al-Jilani
1077 – 1166 CE
Founder of Sufi Qadiri Order
Set up structure for the order of Sufi groups so they start to live in community Allowed Sufi to gain credibility as a spiritual organisation Reminded not to be distracted by materialism, colonialism & focus on Tawhid Stressed obligation of people to do good

Not afraid to publicly criticise those in political/government jobs, guilty of wrongdoing People should repent & place negative thoughts/unjust actions with praise/love for Allah & his pathway Jalal al-Din Rumi

Believed in use of music, poetry & dance as a path for reaching God, helping devotees to focus their whole being on the divine Founder of order Mevlevi & created the Sema – sacred dance: Whirling Dervishes Aim to love & be of service to whole of creation without discrimination Teachings focus on concept of tawhid- unity & union with Allah – primal root from which has been cut off & desire to restore Considered amongst Sufis as an 0065ample of insani kamil – perfected/completed human being Impact & influence on Islam

Challenging the exoteric or ritual side of Islamic practice through the promotion of Islam/Sufism as a personal & spiritual journey into the heart of God’s presence Criticising Muslims who advocate & view Islam as simply legalistic & literalist religious tradition & promoting Islam as a peaceful & inclusive religious experience Promotion of music, poetry, literature & dance as valid expressions of Islam & encouragement of a spiritual dimension within the Islamic world Emphasising the role of personal piety & the place of the heart in Islam and Muslim religious practice & has changed how Islam can be understood & appreciated by both adherents & outsiders Advocating withdrawal from the material world & the pursuit of worldly desires by refocusing the Umma or community on the true teachings of the Qur’an and Hadith & reminding Muslims of the role & place of Muhammad as the model for Muslim life Promotion of women within Islam as Sufi teachers & followers – for example Rabi’a – and advocating a more contemporary female inclusive Islam Making Islam a more attractive religious option in the Western mind through its teachings & practice – added an extra dimension to Islamic experience Contribution on Islam

Ideal that Muslims must struggle (jihad) both internal & external nafs, thus adding an extra dimension to the expression of Islam beyond the boundaries, key beliefs and practices defined by Shariah law (strict & infallible law of God) Adding to Islamic belief that Muslims will discern right from wrong – Sufism takes this belief to a higher level through the heart and spiritual pathway to understand the reality of self and the divine self – the Sufi teaching that to know oneself is a prerequisite to knowing God Adding an extra dimension to the Muslim belief of Tawhid – the uniqueness & oneness of God – through the meditative & reflective practices centred on the individual’s relationship with Allah Sufi teaching that obedience to God & love of God is not done out of fear or hopes for rewards in the afterlife but for the sheer pleasure of God alone Promotion of Sufi path as an added expression of Islam – that the mystical experience of Islam can be achieved through the use of poetry, music and dance which can enhance devotion to Allah * bring a closer more personal experience of Allah through these practices Allowing & encouraging Muslim adherents to turn their faith into an intimate & personal act of devotion to Allah. Sufism allows Islam to appeal to many more dimensions of the human spirit The promotion of Islamic arts and Islamic civilization in a contemporary world & through this to provide ways that Islam can adapt to changes in the contemporary world The publication and promotion of writings of such important Sufis as Rumi, Omar Khayyam & Al-Ghazali which have taken Islamic thought beyond Muslim lands & have attracted a range of Western philosophers, writers and theologians Teachings & practices of different Sufi orders Islam that have helped spread Islam beyond its original sphere of influence in Arabia e.g. The Chighti Sufi order into India & Pakistan

The Mevlevi “Whirling Dervishes” Sufi order into North America The Naqshbandi Sufi order into the Caucasus & Central Asia
Quotes
To Him belongs sovereignty and to Him belongs praise. He gives life and He brings death and He is able to do all things – Quran God is all-knowing
For the Sufi mystic Al-Ghazali this concept explains/justifies the Sufi path of a real/emotional relationship with Allah Every verse in the Qur’an has in inner (exoteric) and outer (exoteric) meaning – the Prophet Muhammad This mirrors the Sufi concept of nafs and different interpretations of the Qur’an I (Allah) created man and breather My Spirit into him – Qur’an Sufi ideal of total service to Allah

Known as Divine Spark
That you worship Allah as if you are seen by Him – Muhammad For the Sufi mystic Al-Ghazali this led to the Sufi belief/practice that the way to achieve knowledge and love of Allah was by an immediate experience of Allah – thus the importance of mysticism in Sufism He who knows himself knows his Lord – Muhammad

For Sufis self-knowledge, the desire to overcome nafs and an understanding of the human condition is at the core of Sufism The Night Flight of The Prophet Muhammad (Qur’an 17:1) is used for Dikhr & as a model or inspiration for Sufi contemplation & meditation Environmental Ethics

Belief
Ethical Teaching
Quote
Impact on Everyday Life
Tawhid
Oneness of Allah
Tawhid (unity):
concept of uniqueness of Allah & the integrity of his creation creation is expression of oneness & unity of God
ethics is inseparable from religion
God is only source of all values
equal value of humans & nature
Allah made the unity of all creation because he willed it to be that way & therefore to fully submit to Allah’s will, they must care for His creation Allah created the world with the purpose of all creation being to worship Allah alone Quran:

Follow Allah’s intentions for the world
Respect creation  submit to Allah

Fear God in your treatment of animals
Humans & creation of equal value

He does not love the extravagant

Must not be wasteful of resources
Use resources in moderation
Take public transport etc – irresponsible behaviour that leads to pollution is wrong Rusul
Prophets
Khalifah (stewardship)
Muslims respect & care for creation
trusteeship
humans are masters & custodians of nature
Qur’an

And when your Lord said to the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy on the earth

Muhammad

Preserve the earth because it is your mother

Especially endorsed water conservation – asked people mot to overuse water even while having ablution for prayer next to a flowing river Must not be wasteful of resources such as water
Must recycle
Buy products with less packaging
Choose products made from sustainable resources
Reuse things such as plastic carrier bags
Make compost
Conservation
Akhria
Judgement Day
Akhira (accountability)
Muslims are accountable for their use & abuse of creation
Muhammad

There is heavenly reward for every act of kindness done to a living animal

Qur’an

Lay in the ground the plant at hand even if it is the last day Islam forbids animal experimentation unless it is done in a humane way & is for a worthwhile purpose, such as the development of medicine Muslims may not use cosmetics that have been tested on animals Where experiments are necessary, and alternatives to animal research cannot be found

The Hajj
Description
Spiritual Preparation
Go to Mecca
Pray, read Qur’an, reconcile, pay debts, leave family in financially stable condition Ihram
Spiritual purity
Clean
Wear ihram garments
Recite talbiya
Avoid forbidden acts
‘Umra
Tawaf around Ka’ba (7 times)
Pray 2 rak’at behind Maquam Ibrahim
Make sa’y between Safa & Marwa (zamzam spring)
Trim hair & remove ihram garments
Mina
Daily prayers
Arafat
The Stand
Spiritual climax
Where Muhammad gave his last sermon
Glorify Allah, repeat supplication, repent to Allah & ask for forgiveness Leave at sunset
Muzdalifa
Pray
Stay overnight
Mina
Jamrat: stone Jamrat al-A’qaba – 3 pillars as Abraham was tempted by the Devil 3 times Nahr (animal sacrifice)
Shave head
Tawaf al-Ifadha
Make sa’y
Farewell Tawaf
Go to Mecca & make farewell tawaf
Perfrom 2 rak’at
Optional – visit Prophet’s Mosque at Medina & Shi’a visit other sites Once home attempt to be better person, spiritual renewal, more committed Beliefs
Tawhid Oneness of God – focus of Allah
Circling the Ka’ba - God at centre of all things/universe
Talbiya mantra: “Here I am Lord at your service” – purpose of life to submit to Allah Ihram: ritual purity – white robes, no violence/anger, no sex, perfume, jewellery, leave material concerns/desires The Stand (Arafat): forgiveness/intense prayer, high point of Hajj, “Hajj is Arafat” (Muhammad) Kutubullah books: Qur’an & Hadith

Sa’y – Hagar & Ishmael
Jumrat – Abraham’s rejection of Satan
Nahr – Abraham’s replacement lamb sacrifice of Ishmael
Muhammad – told people to do Hajj
Malaika angels
Sa’y – Zam Zam spring
Rusul prophets
Abraham: jumrat, nahr
Adam & Abraham & Ishmael: building & preserving Ka’ba
Muhammad: following footsteps of Muhammad
Qadr predestination
Akhira afterlife/judgement day
Arafat: the Stand – rehearsal for judgement day
Ihram clothing – funeral clothing
All sins forgiven – “like a newborn”
Significance
Significance to community (umma)
Significance to individual
Ihram – removed artificial barrier to the unity of mankind  essential sameness of mankind Reaffirms the importance of the umma through the shared experience and the wearing of the ihram, circling the Ka’ba anti clockwise -Tawaf , The standing at Arafat Spiritual experience with thousands of people, which strengthens the umma = solidarity of the Umma .

Starts and ends in Mecca, which is the spiritual home of Islam. Pilgrims from all around the world come together to worship the same God, Tawhid (oneness of God). Social connection with the worldwide Islamic community.

Pilgrims re-live the sacred history e.g. the sa’y (hajar), the nahr (Abraham sacrifice) Nahr (Abraham sacrifice) reminds them for the need for charity for people in poverty throughout the world – thinking for community beyond Mecca. Equality of race, gender, economic status strengthens the umma (all one). Islam means peace! No arguing = place of peace where people can escape to from their own lives (e.g. fighting in India) this strengthens the community. Raises moral of pilgrims as believers – feel part of larger entity Annual renewal of umma

Ihram restrictions  infuses & strengthens a spirit of self-restraint Talbiya  facilitates bonding between man & Allah
Discovers one’s true self
Surrender to Supreme Lord – obeying call to Hajj – 5th Pillar Grand setting humbles one, making aware of failings & lapses in being true & faithful to one’s covenant with Lord Sense of liberation & purgation

Spiritual upliftment
Re-birth e.g. “returning like a newly born baby” Muhammed – The Mount of Mercy/The Standing at Arafat/Judgement day Rehearsal. Spiritual transformation. It is the living out of the Qur’an, which are the actual words of Muhammed. This strengths the belief of Tawhid. We live out of the Qur’an through it being prescribed/mandated in the Qur’an. Re-affirms their devotion to Allah and their personal commitment to Islam. E.g. Tawaf, Ihram, no sexual relations because they have entered into a ritual state of purity. Consecrated state, intensity of the experience. Transformative – coherence, direction & meaning of life, morals Fulfils human purpose: submission/surrender to Allah

GOD CONSCIOUSNESS – GOD AT THE CENTRE OF THE UNIVERSE. E.G. THE CIRCLING OF THE KA’BA Help strengthen their resistance of sins e.g. The Stoning of the Devil – Jamrat. Pre-Hajj (paying debts, leaving enough money for their family, resolve arguments) helps them to develop right relationships with their family, community and others. Hajjah/Hajji privilege to have this title.

Visit other pilgrimage sites e.g. Medina the first Islamic community, Jerusalem. Experience equality, lack of discrimination.
Confirming your spiritual ancestry to Abraham and your paternal ancestry to Adam. Live out all of the beliefs.
Pilgrimage (a holy journey) retracing the footsteps of Muhammed. Social connection with other Muslims.

Quotes
Muhammad
Forgiveness: “will return as a newly born baby [free of sins]” Qur’an
Imperative duty: “Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah” Tawaf – Talbiyah: “Here I am at your service, O God, Here I am!” Nahr:“Eat some of it and feed the needy and poor”
Religion and Peace
Christianity and Peace
Foundation
Shalom:
Old Testament
Hebrew
Jewish – “total wellbeing”
Pax Christi:
New Testament
Latin
Hebrew – “Peace of Christ” - AGAPE
Based on respect of human person, freedom, right relationships, justice, equality Eirene:
New Testament
Greek
“To be in harmony with another”
Key Principles
Agape – altruism, love
Relational: 3 dimensions: God, inner, world/others
Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember your brother has something against you, leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to your brother; then come and offer your gift.” Justice – irrespective of gender, race, socioeconomic status Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness

Conversion – change of heart
Reconciliation/repentance/forgiveness
Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember your brother has something against you, leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to your brother; then come and offer your gift.” Unity v uniformity

Discipleship
Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God Key Text
New Testament (Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, Paul’s letters) Beatitudes – “Blessed are the peacemakers”
Resurrection appearances
Main Teachings
Active
“Faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by action, is dead.” Pax Christi
Justice
Reconciliation/Forgiveness
Human dignity
Witness/discipleship
Sacramental – inner peace – formal e.g. last rights & relational – Eucharist: community Kingdom building/communities of peace
Pacifism
You have heard that it was said, “Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.” But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. Disarmament & non-violence
Just War – when oppression needed to be addressed, last resort Inner Peace
Find inner peace ultimately in and through living out their vocation as disciples of Jesus Christ & following his teaching Jesus as a model for living in peace: sense of wellbeing
Integrity & fidelity to his mission
Balance of prayer & active ministry
Communal nature of his work
Impossible to have inner peace while experiencing turmoil & inner conflict die to compromising personal values Remain true to gospel values to be agent of peace:
Fidelity
Forgiveness
Justice
No conflict between interior & exterior life  peacemaker (Beatitudes) Service flows from prayer – balance between the contemplative & the active elements of life: James 2: 14 – 18 “What good is it, my brothers, if a man claims to have faith but no deeds?” Community provides help & support  belong

Peace in prayer service:
Sign of peace (Catholic)
Gathering prayer (Protestant)
Our Father
Prayers of peace/intercession
Prayer & contemplation:
Rosary (Catholic)
Bible studies (Protestant, Luther – scripture reading)
Meditation:
Mantra: Maranatha “come Lord Jesus”
Lectio Devina: re-read scripture passage/phrase “Holy reading” Icons: creating “praying the icon” – focus on values of saint & focus for prayer (Orthodox) World Peace
Public statements by Church leaders
Programs of action at local & international levels
Organisations dedicated to bringing about peace
Courses of study
Commemorative days
Public statements:
Catholic: Pope John XXIII “Pacem in Terris” (Peace on Earth) Social rights & responsibilities
Moral & cultural values
Economic rights
Political rights
Disarmament
Refugees
Call to solidarity
Organisations
National Council of Churches in Australia – Act for Peace Campaign Founded 1948 as the aid agency of the Australian Council for the World Council of Churches Ecumenical initiative that aims to empower war-torn communities to reduce poverty, protect refugees and prevent further conflict in partnership with churches Active in world’s most conflict-affected aread i.e. Sudan, Somalia, Zimbabwe, the Middle East, Burma & Sri Lanka Emphasis on international long-term development

Prevent conflicts through facilitating community-driven peace, reconciliation & disarmament processes Initiates peace-building & disarmament programs (armed violence imposes huge human, social & economic costs on societies by corroding the social fabric of communities, sowing fear and undermining aid programs) Syria Violence Emergency Appeal:

Unrest in Syria in aftermath of March 2011 uprising has seen thousands killed & displaced in clashes between government & opposition groups Civilians facing imminent threat of violence & loss of homes, lands & livelihoods At least 500 Syrian children have been killed

People injured, traumatised, put in detention, abused
100 000 people forced to flee, taking refuge in refugee camps in neighbouring countries – 75 % women & children Act for Peace response: emergency assistance including food, shelter, household items, hygiene kits, blankets, infant supplies & health & educational support Pax Christi

Catholic peace movement & network started after WWII to promote harmonious rebuilding of Europe and is now active in more than 50 countries Works internationally on a wide variety of human rights issues i.e. disarmament, a just world order & religion & violent conflict Grounded in belief that peace is possible & that vicious cycles of violence & injustice can be broken Pays special attention to both the positive & negative impact of religion in attempting to resolve conflicts Operation:

Responds to requests for help from local peace groups in regions experiencing conflict Supports international coalitions that focus on timely issues like banning landmines, curbing the trade & proliferation of small arms, establishing an International Criminal Court & abolishing nuclear weapons Attempts to promote interfaith dialogue & cooperation among religions in order to create peace Dialogue between different religions is a tool for better understanding & peaceful co-existence Religions offer justice, reconciliation & forgiveness which makes peace possible Provides international forum where religious & political leaders & citizens can together face what divides their communities Pleads for the rights of religious freedom & worship

Undertaken international advocacy work on the situations of religious minorities in Pakistan & India The Orthodox Peace Fellowship
Association of Orthodox Christians belonging to different nations & jurisdictions who attempt to live the peace of Christ in situations of division & conflict Based on Matthew 5:23-24: “Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember your brother has something against you, leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to your brother; then come and offer your gift.” Apply principles of the Gospel to situations of division & conflict to bear witness to the peace of Christ Aspire to eliminate violence as a means of conflict resolution by promoting mediation & negotiation Offer support to conscientious objectors

Encourages compassionate treatment of prisoners & their rehabilitation Pray for enemies & endeavour to communicate God’s love for them Undergo theological research to better understand ways in which Orthodox Christians should respond to division, conflict, injustice & war Quotes

Martin-Luther King Jnr
We must pursue peaceful ends through peaceful means
Peace feeds peace
Pope Paul VI
Peace is not simply the absence of warfare…it is fashioned by efforts directed day after day Effort must be made by all individuals continually
Saint Francis of Assisi
Lord, make me an instrument of Thy peace; where there is hatred, let me sow love” Agape
Transform negative situations into ones based upon peace & justice Thomas Kempis
First, be peaceful yourself, and you will be able to bring peace to others Inner peace – share with others
Islam and Peace
Key Principles/Teachings
Submission/surrender
Jihad: striving in the cause of Allah
greater: inner peace
lesser: external
Relational:
Allah
Umma & self
Pathways:
Sharia: outer
Tariqa: inner
Justice
Patience
Pacifism – active nonviolent resistance & open defiance of persecution Inner Peace
Reciprocal relationship between inner peace and peace with the world A sense of peace within oneself, makes it possible for Muslims to live in peace with others, conversely without peace with the wider world, one cannot be at peace with themselves Concept of peace is twofold:

To be at peace with Allah, submission
To be at peace with oneself & the rest of the world
Submission
Goal of Islam
Peace is not possible outside of this relationship with Allah Submission  peace with Allah  peace with oneself  peace with others Qur’an
Sets out clear paths for Muslims to submit to Allah
Pillars of Islam, foundational – each requires internal/spiritual commitment together with outward action/sign Pillars – living according to will of Allah  sense of peace Shahada
Witness to oneness of Allah & role of Muhammad as messenger
Declaration prayed ceaselessly in everyday life, witness to monotheism of Islam Repudiation of anything false i.e. selfishness & egocentrism  worship Allah freely Freedom is integral part of quest for inner peace (focus on selfishness destroys peace) Salat

Requirement of ritual prayer
Act of obedience to Allah – proclaim oneness & greatness
Contribute to purity of the person, providing strength to carry out the requirements of Islam  provide important foundation for a sense of peace & wellbeing Zakat
Requirement of almsgiving
Freed from greed & selfishness
Freedom from the attachment of wealth  essential in the quest for inner peace Reliance of wealth – undermine search for inner peace
Sawm
Voluntary fasting in the month of Ramadan
Internal disposition & intention – concerted effort to ensure no evil acts are committed & evil thoughts avoided Self-discipline companion to achieving inner peace as overcomes degrees of selfishness, greed & laziness Hajj

Pilgrimage to Mecca
Sacrifice & dedication – putting aside selfishness in seeking to submit to the will of Allah  sense of inner peace Sufi mysticism
Significant influence on the quest for inner peace
Strong emphasis on peace & attainment of deep inner peace
Three stations/stages of peace – progressive development through the most basic experience of peace to the most profound & complete state Stage of Islam: submission to will of Allah through pillars

Iman: peace of Allah internalised
Ihsan: transformative, experience peace of Allah free from entrapments of evil World Peace
Provide opportunities for people in Australian community to become more familiar with Muslim values & beliefs Conflict stems from a misunderstanding of Islam
Address underlying causes of conflict
Partnerships with other religious organisations – esp. Jewish & Christian: lots in common & core values of these religions is peace Joint statements & programs with leaders of other religious faiths to condemn violence & work for peace Educating wider Australian community about true nature of Islam Organisations

Islamic Relief Worldwide
International relief & development charity
Founded in the United Kingdom 1984 to respond to disasters & emergencies Promotes sustainable economic & social development working with local communities regardless of race, religion of gender Gaza Emergency Appeal:

Conflict in Gaza resulting in death, injury, destruction of homes, schools, buildings Years of political conflict have stifled economic development & led to increased poverty Social & economic conditions are poor

Chronic shortage of medical supplies
Islamic Relief has worked in Gaza since 1998:
Relief, child welfare, education, health & nutrition, livelihoods support, water & sanitation Repairing medial buildings, schools, medical aid, food
Encourage medical buildings, schools, medical aid, food
Encourage mediation & non-violent conflict resolution
Education  understanding  peace
Education widows to equip them to become financially independent & support family Coalition of Women for Peace
Muslim, feminist organisation against the occupation of Palestine & for a just peace Founded November 2000 after outbreak of Second Intifada
Leading voice in the Israeli peace movement, bringing together women from a wide variety of identities & groups & enhancing their participation in public discourse Supports, empowers & assists human rights activist & organisations Organises capacity-building workshops & seminars for peace activists i.e. media outreach, planning & organising public campaigns, internet campaigning & legal counselling for activists Creates meaningful partnerships with other peace & social justice initiatives by providing organizational & fundraising assistance Leads international campaigns for peace & justice in cooperation with human rights organisations & women’s movements around the world Long-term project: FOR A

Organising Russian-speaking activists to promote social & political change within Russian-speaking public in Israel Exposes public to feminist & cultural perspectives regarding militarism & the occupation, human rights, sexism & homophobia Aims to create radical change in discourse of Russian-speaking media in Israel & to enhance & encourage the involvement of Russian-speaking women in social & political activism in an attempt to attain peace Muslim Peace Fellowships

Founded in 1994 as the first Muslim organisation specifically devoted to the theory & practice of Islamic nonviolence Unarmed struggle in pursuit of wise, just and compassionate social transformation is the original & ensuring genius of the Prophetic jihad Gathering of peace & justice-oriented Muslims of all backgrounds who are dedicated to making the beauty of Islam evident in the worlds “Let there be no compulsion in religion” (Qur’an 2:256) – beauty of Islam can only reach fruition in a conscious & voluntary global harmony Objectives:

Work against injustice & for peace in ourselves, families, communities & world Affirm commitment to peace on behalf of all Muslims
Explore & deepen understanding of Islamic teachings about peace & nonviolence Expose & transcend the vicious circle of religious stereotyping & false identity Develop faithful & authentic nonviolence strategies for the establishment of sustainable social balance & the redress of wrongs Reach out to people of other religious traditions to further mutual understanding & respect, to build solidarity in the service of the planet To work together with all people of good will to keep open the Straight Path between human conscience & the creator Pursues its goals through conferences, publications, service projects, teaching in academic settings, speaking engagements, coalition building, interreligious social action & interior work & prayer Quotes

Qur’an
Let there be no compulsion in religion
God loves not the aggressors
If the enemy inclines towards peace, then you should also incline towards peace The Qur’an refers to Islam as ‘the paths of peace’
And do not corrupt the land after it has been set in order
God established harmony in all aspects of creation, Muslims must maintain

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