Chapter 19- French Revolution
1) Describe the 3 estates of France. Who paid the taxes? Who held the wealth and power in France?
The first estate was the top 1% of population which is the government, church, and clergy men. They experienced special privileges and paid no taxes.
The Second Estate is made up of the 2% of population and included nobility. They experienced special privileges and were taxed lightly.
The Third Estate was made p of the "common" population. They included lawyers, merchants, and peasants. They were made up of the Bourgeoisie which is the middle class which is the highest portion of the third estate.
2) Define liberty and equality.
Liberty is freedom, guaranteed human rights, no censorship, and political sovereignty. Equality is extension of rights to everybody (white men).
3) Discuss the financial crisis in France on the eve of the Revolution. Why was the problem so grave in a country that had considerable wealth?
France was in debt from the Seven Years' War ad American Revolution. They also had an inefficient tax system.
4) What was the Tennis Court Oath?
The Tennis court oath was on June 20. King Louis XVI locks the National Assembly out of their traditional meeting place. The National Assembly is force to meet on a nearby tennis court. Members of the National Assembly pledge to not disband until they give France a constitution which became known as the Tennis Court Oath. The National Assembly then becomes known as the National Constituent assembly.
5) What was the Great Fear?
The Great Fear was when rumors of royal troops being sent into rural districts spark revolts.
6) What was the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen?
On August 1789, the National Assembly sets forth a statement of their principles in the Declaration of the Rights of Man ad Citizen. It was influenced by the Bill of Rights in the U.S. it was directed against specific abused of the old regime. It was only applied to men and there was no mention of the king.
7) What were the policies of the National Constituent Assembly toward the Catholic Church?
They have a repayment of national debts through confiscation of church lands. They had an issuance of assignments which are government bonds. There was an issuance of civil constitution of the clergy. They transformed the Roman Catholic Church into a government body. This embittered relations between church and state.
8) What were the reforms of the National Assembly?
One reform was the creation of a constitutional monarchy. The monarchy would have to follow the rules, guarantee that their rules would be agreed on. The liberties were guranteed by law and they were inspired by the Bill of Rights. This reformed the economy and they needed an efficient tax system. Another reform was when the Estates General becomes the National Assembly. The 3rd estate called for a new legislative body with one house instead of three. Gthe third estate breaks away from the Estates General and asks the first and second estates to join. June 19, 1789 all estates join together in new legislative body. This is called the National Assembly. The representatives were made by the population. Another reform of the Assembly was made by the Parisian women. On October 5, 1789 women marched to Versailles to force the King to come to Paris to see the depression and hunger.
9) What role did the women of Paris play in the Revolution?
On October 5, 1789 7,000 Parisian Women upset by increased hunger an unemployment march To Versailles. They invaded royal apartments, kill body guards in search for royal family. They forced the king to decree the sanctions of the National Assembly. They demanded the royal family to return to Paris. They showed how they could come together and prove their strength as women
10) Who were the sans-culottes?
The Sans-Culottes were referred to "without breeches" which refers to those who wore long trousers instead of...
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