public health

Topics: Vitamin, Nutrition, Fatty acid Pages: 34 (7439 words) Published: January 8, 2014
PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Lipids
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water – functions:
a. Solvent
b. A lubricant
c. Transport medium
d. Regulate body temperature
7. Macronutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, lipids required in grams, kilograms 8. Micronutrients – vitamins and minerals needed in micrograms or milligrams 9. Energy needed for
a. Basic body functions/basal metabolism (60 – 75% total energy requirement) b. Physical activity (15 – 30%)
c. Processing consumed food (5 – 10%)
10. Energy balance: the balance between energy consumed and utilised. 11. Positive energy balance: occurs when energy input is more than expended. Leads to weight gain. 12. Negative energy balance occurs when energy intake is less than energy expended. Results in utilization of energy stores and weight loss. 13. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy, structure (growth) and regulate body processes. maintain the biological processes, growth and reproduction 14. Nutrients: part of food the body uses to build tissue, produce energy and keep healthy 15. Essential Nutrients are nutrients that must be provided in the diet because the body cannot synthesize them or cannot make them in enough quantities as required to satisfy the body’s needs. 16. Nutrition:

a. It is the study of foods and how our bodies use them
b. Is concerned with how food is produced, processed, handled, sold, shared, and eaten as well as the of digestion, absorption and utilization of food in the body. 17. Other substances in food – anti-nutrients, food additives, contaminants, harmless microbes (yeast, bacteria) 18. Balanced diet: a diet that contains all the essential nutrients in their right amounts necessary for optimal body function. 19. Importance of good nutrition

a. Stronger immune system
b. Less illness
c. Better health
d. Children learn better
e. Stronger people
f. Stronger and healthy people
g. More productive people able to create better opportunities h. Break the cycle of poverty
20. Nutrients: mineral-
a. Calcium
b. Selenium
c. Magnesium
d. Zinc
e. Iron
f. Iodine
g. Copper
h. Manganese
i. Fluoride
j. Chromium
k. Molybdenum
21. Vitamins:
a. Water Soluble vitamins:
b. Vit C/ascorbic acid
c. Thiamine – B1
d. Riboflavin – B2
e. Niacin/nicotinic acid
f. Vitamin B6/pyridoxine
g. Panthothenic acid
h. Biotin
i. Vit B12/cyanocobalamin
j. Follate
k. Fat Soluble vitamins
l. Vitamins A, D(calciferol), E(tocopherols), K

22. Factors affecting BMR
a. Age : decreases with age
b. Growth-growing individuals have higher – children, pregnant women c. Gender males more than females lean body mass
d. Body shape tall thin because high surface area for heat loss e. Rises with temperature e.g. in fever
f. Stress increases the BMR
g. Nutrition states : eating less as in fasting
h. Hormones increase in thyroid or growth hormones

23. Energy content of food:
a. Carbohydrate – 4 kilocalories/gram
b. Protein – 4 kilocalories/gram
c. Lipids – 9 kilocalories/gram
d. Vitamins and minerals have no energy value

CARBOHYDRATES
1. Carbohydrates are compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and include sugars, starches and fibre. 2. Can be classified based on their polymerization/complexity as: a. Monosaccharides – made of single carbohydrate units eg glucose, fructose and galactose b. Disaccharides –made of two monosaccharides: eg sucrose (glucose + fructose), galactose (2 glucose), lactose (glucose+ galactose) c. Polysaccharides – made of large and complex molecules eg starch, fibre.

3. Can be classified as follows:
a. Simple sugars/simple carbohydrates – include monosaccharides and disaccharides. b. Complex carbohydrates/Polysaccharides – starch, non-starch polysaccharides found in plant cell walls e.g. Cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectin (fibre – the parts of plants that are not digestible by humans)

4. Simple sugars/simple carbohydrates
5. Glucose,...
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