Psychotherapy reviewer

Topics: Psychotherapy, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Therapy Pages: 5 (835 words) Published: January 13, 2014
PERSPECTIVE
THERAPEUTIC FOCUS
THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP
THERAPEUTIC CHANGE PROCESS
Psychodynamic
Result of defensive reactions to anxiety, faulty object representations or pathogenic schema Classical psychoanalytic approaches: therapeutic alliance where therapist is neutral but an expert, while the client is submissive; participant observer; cooperative Clarification

Confrontation
Interpretation
Mirroring
Desensitization strategy working through
Cognitive-Behavioral
Result of maladaptive behavior patterns; dysfunctional cognitions Traditional behavioral therapy approach: therapist is expert/client is learner Contemporary cognitive therapy approach: collaborative empiricism Cognitive restructuring

Desensitization strategies: systematic desensitization, exposure, cognitive and behavioral rehearsal Skill training
Modeling and reinforcement
Experiential
Result of discrepancy between real and ideal self, and/or disturbance in boundary between self and others so that one is not centered in the here and now. Collaborative
Empathic listening and responding
Desensitization strategies: phenomenological reduction, staying with, empty chair technique, guided fantasy, enactment Systems
Result of dysfunctional patterns of family boundaries, schemas, power, intimacy, or skill deficits. Varies from expert-novice to collaborative
Joining
Skill training
Boundary restructuring
Desensitization strategies: paradox, reframing, enactment
Integrative-multicultural-accountability
Result of intrapersonal, interpersonal and/or system dynamics in a given cultural context. Varies from expert-novice to collaborative
Tailored integration of above interventions that are culturally sensitive, cost-effective, and efficacious

FOUR BASIC CURATIVE FACTORS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY
1. Client resources: readiness for change, coping and personal/social skills, motivation, eg-strength, intelligence, achievements, psychological-mindedness, courage, and past history of success in outer efforts; social support system, financial resources, fortuitous events 2. Relationship: empathy, respect, genuineness, unconditional positive regard 3. Intervention strategies and tactics

4. Faith/hope/expectancy

PHASES OF THE PSYCHOTHERAPY PROCESS
STAGE
GOAL
THERAPEUTIC METHODS
Engagement
To develop a working therapeutic relationship and maximize the client’s readiness and motivation for change Manifest empathic listening
Trigger the placebo effect
Reverse the client’s demoralization
Provide effective suggestions and socialization therapy
Assessment
To specify the client’s maladaptive pattern, including behavioral, effective and cognitive components, which if changed, lead to more adaptive functioning Utilize diagnostic questioning strategies

Utilize interventive questioning strategies
Assess by means of psychological inventories
Utilize role playing and enactment to elicit/clarify pattern Intervention
To modify or transform the client’s maladaptive pattern into a more adaptive pattern Utilize pattern interruption strategies
Utilize cognitive restructuring, interpretation, and/or reframing methods Elicit and support client change factors
Maintenance/Termination
To maintain the new adaptive pattern and reduce/eliminate the client’s reliance on the treatment relationship Employ relapse prevention strategies
Set or negotiate a termination date
Schedule weaning sessions
Increasingly space medication or therapeutic maintenance sessions when continued use is warranted

STAGES OF READINESS FOR CHANGE
STAGE
DESCRIPTION
INTERVENTIONS
Precontemplation
Client denies both the presence of a problem and the need for any treatment 1. Explore the client’s explanatory model
2. Suggest the client think about the situation from another perspective 3. Provide education and information
Contemplation
Client admits the presence of a problem and possibly needing treatment, but not at the current time 1. Encourage the client to think about making...
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