Psychology Study Guide

Topics: Psychology, Nervous system, Neuron Pages: 6 (1240 words) Published: March 18, 2014
PSY 101
Review Sheet #1
Chapters 1-3

1. What does psychology study?
Psychology is the scientific study of behaviors and mental processes. Behaviors include all outward or overt actions and reactions, mental processes include all internal covert activities of the mind. The goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict, and control the behaviors and mental process of both human and animals.

2. Explain Structuralism.
Structuralism is the study of the structure of the mind. It’s based on the idea that introspection could be used on thoughts as well as physical sensations.

3. What is Gestalt Psychology?
A study of how sensation and perception creates a whole pattern that is greater than the sum of the individual components.

4. Who is John Watson and what is he known for?
John Watson is an American Psychologist who challenged the functionalist viewpoint with science of behavior. He is known for being the founder of behaviorism by using conditioning as a basis for his idea.

5. Describe the cognitive approach.
The cognitive perspective focuses on memory intelligence perception thought processes, problem solving, language and learning.

6. Who is Freud and for what theory did he provide the foundation? Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist. He provided the foundation of the theory on psychoanalysis. This is a theory for which modern psychotherapy is based.

7. Describe the view of contemporary psychologists in regards to the different approaches in psychology (this has to do with the Developmental Systems approach) Modern psychotherapy focus may still include the unconscious mind and influence its over conscious behavior conscious behavior. There are seven approaches over all.

8. What are the main areas of specialization in Psychology?
Therapy, research, teaching, equipment design and workplaces, developing educational methods, health, sports performance, legal issue, business concerns, design of tools and furniture.

9. What is a hypothesis?
A tentative approach of a phenomenon based on observations.

10. What are dependent and independent variables?
The independent variable is the variable the researcher manipulate during the experiments, the dependent variable is the constant part that is being measured

11. What is a control group?
Subject in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo.

12. What is the experimental method and what is it used for? Comprised of operational definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental control groups, and random assignment. It’s used to allow researchers to determine the cause of a behavior.

13. What is the difference between a sample and a population? Sample = subjects selected from the larger population.
Population = entire group of people/ animals the researcher is interested in.

14. Describe the code of ethics developed by the American Psychological Association that ensures psychological research is carried out in an ethical manner. Protection of rights and well-being of participants, informed consent, justification when deception is used, the right of participates to withdraw at any time, protection of participants from physical or psychological harm, confidentiality and debriefing, animal rights.

15. Describe the difference in correlation and causation
A correlation proves that there is a relationship between two variables. Causation is proof of why an effect was caused.

16. What are dendrites and what is their function in the body? Dendrites are branch like structures that receives information from other neurons then flows that message to the soma down the axon and pass it on to the next cell.

17. What is the myelin sheath and what is its main purpose?
The myelin sheath is a part of the neuron; it insulates and protects it from danger. It also speeds up the sending of messages.

18. What is the action potential?
Release of the neural impulse...
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