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Psychology Module 1 notes

By Kennedy-Dorantes Sep 18, 2014 1058 Words
Module 1
Definition of Psychology
What do phycologist study?
Psychology
The systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes Behaviors
Observable actions or responses in both human and animals
Mental Processes
Not directly observable; refer to a world wide range of complex mental processes, such as thinking, imagining, studying, and dreaming Goals of Psychology
Describe
First goal of psychology is to describe the different ways that organisms behave Explain
Second goal is to explain the cause of behavior
Predict
Third goal is to predict how organisms will behave in certain situations Control
Fourth goal is to control an organism’s behavior
Answering Questions
How do psychologists answer questions?
Approaches to understanding behavior include:
Biological
Cognitive
Behavioral
Psychoanalytic
Humanistic
Cross-Cultural
Evolutionary

Biological Approach
Focuses on how our genes hormones, and nervous system interact without environment to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotion, and coping techniques Example) Autism
Autism runs in families; supported by the finding in identical twins If one twin has autism, there is a high chance (90%) the other twin will exhibit signs of autistic behavior Cognitive Approach

Examines how we process, store, and use information and how this information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel Cognitive Neuroscience
Involves taking pictures and identifying the structures and functions of the living brain during performance of a variety of mental or cognitive processe such as thinking, and planning Behavioral Approach

Studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environments reward or punish these behaviors
Some behaviorists, such as Albert Bandura, disagree with strict behaviorism Formulated a theory that includes mental or cognitive processes in addition to observable behaviors Social Cognitive Approach

Behaviors are influenced not only by environmental events and reinforces but also by observation, imitation, and thought processes Psychoanalytic Approach
Based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly influence the development of later personality traits and psychological problems Stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors, and the development of personality traits and psychological problems later in life Humanistic Approach

Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment Because of its free-will concept of human nature and lack of experimental methods, many behaviorists regard the humanistic approach as more of a philosophy of life than a science of human behavior Cross-Cultural Approach

Studies the influence of cultural/ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning Differences in how countries diagnose autism:
US
Symptoms described 60 years ago
First thought to be caused by environmental factors (cold parents) Researchers believe that probable causes of autism include environmental approach South Korea
Number of people with autism is unknown
Once a terrible stigma; children with autism often kept home from public Doctors in South Korea usually diagnose as a reactive attachment disorder ot “Lack of love” Evolutionary Approach
Studies how evolutionary ideas, such as adaptation and natural selection, explain human behaviors and mental processes
Eclectic approach
Uses different approaches to study the same behavior
Historical Approach
How did psychology begin?
Structuralism: elements of the mind
Functionalism: functions of the mind
Gestalt approach: sensations versus perceptions
Behaviorism: observable behavior
Structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Studied the most basic elements, primarily sensations and perceptions, that make up our conscious mental experiences Introspection
Method of exploring conscious mental processes by asking subjects to look inward and report their sensations Functionalism
William James (1842-1910)
Studied the function rather than the structure of consciousness; was interested in how our minds adapt to our changing environment Gestalt Approach
Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka
Emphasized that perception is more than the sum of its parts and studied how sensations are assembled into meaningful perceptual experiences Behaviorism
Emphasize the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors
John Watson; 1913, “Psychology as a behaviorist views it”
Psychology should be considered as objective, experimental science
Goal: the analysis of observable behaviors and the prediction and control of those behaviors
1920s to 1960s; behaviorism was the dominant force in American psychology
Due to work of B.F Skinner and other behaviorists
Expanded Watson’s ideas in modern-day behavioral approach
1970s to present; behaviorism challenged by cognitive approach (now surpasses behaviorism) Careers in psychology
Psychologist versus psychiatrists
Psychologist have completed four to five years if postgraduate education and have obtained a PhD, PsyD, or EdD in psychology Clinical psychologists have a PhD, PsyD, or EdD, specialized in a clinical subarea, and spent an additional year in a supervised therapy setting to gain experiences in diagnosing and treating a wide range of abnormal behaviors

Psychologist versus psychiatrists
Neither clinical nor counseling psychologists assess the neurological causes of mental problems
Until recently, no psychologists in the US have been able to prescribe drugs
Psychologists vs. psychiatrists
Counseling psychologists provide many of the same ser3vices as clinical psychologist, but usually work with different problems, such as those involving marriage, family, or career counseling Psychiatrists are medical doctors (MDs) who have spent several years in clinical training, which includes diagnosing possible physical. And neurological causes of abnormal behaviors and treating these behaviors with prescription drugs

Many career settings
49% of psychologist work as clinical and counseling psychologists in private practice or therapy settings
28% work in college/university settings
Research Areas
Areas of specialization
Clinical and counseling psychology
Social
Developmental
Experimental
Biological
Cognitive
Psychometrics
Industrial/organizational psychology
Clinical and counseling psychology
Includes the assessment and treatment of people with psychological problems, such as grief, anxiety, or stress
Social psychology
Involves the study of social interactions, stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes, conformity, group behaviors, and aggression
Developmental psychology
Examines moral, social, emotional, and cognitive development throughout a person’s entire life

Experimental psychology
Includes area of sensation, perception, learning, human performance, motivation, and emotion
Biological psychology
Biological psychology
Also called psychobiology
Involves research on the physical and chemical changes that occur during stress learning, and emotions, as well as how or genetic makeup, rain, and nervous system interact with our environment and influence behavior

Cognitive psychology
Involves how we process, store, and retrieve information and how cognitive process influence our behaviors
Psychometrics
Focuses on the measurement of people’s abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors
Industrial/organizational psychology
Examines the relationship of people and their work environment

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