Psychology Exam 2

Topics: Reinforcement, Operant conditioning, Sleep Pages: 17 (4683 words) Published: June 30, 2014
CHAPTER 4
Objectives:
1. Define consciousness.---------
2. Appreciate the role of the circadian rhythm.
3. Describe the stages (5) of sleep including the sequence of the stages. The development of the electroencephalograph led to dramatic increases in what is known about sleep. When electrodes are attached to the face and scalp of sleepers, different patterns are produced on the graphic record called the electroencephalogram or EEG. The patterns vary in frequency and amplitude of the waves shown on the EEG. These waves reflect patterns of brain activity. It was discovered that the patterns on the EEG change throughout the night to correspond to various stages of sleep. Wakefulness is characterized by beta waves and relaxation is characterized by alpha waves. In the first stage of sleep, theta waves appear and indicate one is asleep. Stage 1 lasts a few minutes and soft noises will awaken the sleeper. Stage 2 is characterized by bursts of activity on the EEG called sleep spindles. During stage 2 the sleeper will not be awakened by soft sounds. In stage 3 sleep, slow high amplitude waves constitute 20% of the EEG. These delta waves predominate during stage 4. Also, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate decrease. The sleeper will sleep through loud noises. Most night terrors and sleepwalking occur in this stage. Collectively, stages 1 through 4 are referred to as nonREM sleep. After progressing through stages 1 through 4, the sequence reverses and the sleeper enters stage 3 and then stage 2. However, rather than enter stage 1, the sleeper enters rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep is characterized by smaller, faster waves on the EEG, indicating brain activity similar to an awaken state. There are rapid eye movements, and fluctuations in heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. Also, twitches occur (especially in the face and hands), and both sexes experience sexual arousal. When awakened from REM sleep one reports dreaming but when in REM sleep one cannot act out dreams because the body is in a paralysis. The sequence through nonREM stages lasts approximately 70 minutes and a REM episode lasts about 20 minutes. Thus, each sequence takes approximately 90 minutes. A sleeper completes the cycle through nonREM and REM several times a night, depending on how long one sleeps. Also, the amount of time spent in each stage changes throughout the night. As sleep progresses, there is a decrease in the amount of time spent in delta sleep and an increase in the amount of time spent in REM sleep.

4. Explain the 2 theories of why we sleep.
Repair & Restoration Theory of sleep, evolutionary theory of sleep, and information consolidation theory of sleep 5. Identify the major sleep disorders.
insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, sleepwalking and night terrors 6. Explain Freud's view of dreaming; differentiate the manifest content and the latent content of dreams. Dreams are a representation of unconscious desires, thoughts, and motivations. Manifest content=made up of the actual images, thoughts, and content contained within the dream, while latent content=represents the hidden psychological meaning of the dream 7. Describe the physiological view of dreaming called the Activation-Synthesis model. 8. Define hypnosis and describe its usefulness in reducing pain but not enhancing memory. 9. Describe the neodissociation view of hypnosis and the non-state social psychological explanation of hypnosis. non-state social psychological explanation of hypnosis= explanation of hypnosis based on responding to social demands and in ways expected

neodissociation= explanation of hypnosis based on splitting of consciousness

Key terms:
activation-synthesis model of dreaming- brain activity during (REM) sleep is interpreted into a dream story adaptive theory of sleep- evolutionary theory of sleep; sleep evolved to prevent interaction with the environment when it is dangerous alpha waves-...
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