Psychology Cognitive Level of Analysis Essay Outlines

Topics: Memory, Memory processes, Cognitive psychology Pages: 72 (19304 words) Published: February 4, 2014
IB Psychology
Cognitive Learning Outcome Outlines

Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis & Explain how principles that define the cognitive level of analysis may be demonstrated in research

Define the CLA
Is based on how mental processes such as perception attention, language, memory and thinking in the brain processes information Concerns our intake of information from the outside world; how we make sense of the information and what use we make of it State the Principles of CLA

Here are three underlying principles of CLA
1. Human beings are information processors and that mental representations guide behavior 2. Mental processes can and should be studied scientifically by developing theories and by using a variety of research methods 3. Social and cultural factors affect cognitive processes

Purpose of the principles
These principles are the main ideas that have driven focused research on specific areas of behavior and cognition They also allow us to understand how behavior can be influenced by cognitive processes Define cognition

Refers to a process that is based on one’s mental representations of the world such as images, words and concepts People likewise have different experiences and therefore each individual will have different mental representations of the world Body:

State principle 1
Cognitive psychologists believe that mental processes and stored representations of the world determine behavior and are central to human experience Describe the principle
Psychologists see the mind as a complex machine - where they believe that it is useful to model mental processing an information-processing approach whereby: Information examined from the outside world is received and encoded Storage and representation of this information to ourselves

Ways in which this information is manipulated and used by the individual How we output information back into the world to be received by other Cognitive psychologists have used the computer analogy, where the human mind has been compared to a computer, in that both can be seen as information processors, to attempt to understand how the brain manages these mental processes (information processing). The brain in this instance is seen as the hardware and the mind, thoughts and mental representations/images as the software. Explain computer analogy

Attempted to understand what occurs between input and output They have addressed how the mind selects and codes incoming information and represents knowledge to itself while processing it and combining it with previously stored information (organization), and then how inferences are made based upon this information and therefore how these cognitions affect behavior. (OR) Both people and computers store information and retrieve it when applicable to current tasks People, like computers acquire information from the environment (input) Both transform information, produce new information

Both return information back to the environment in the form of behavior (output) Explain top-down/bottom-up processing
Information input to the mind comes via bottom-up processing -- that is, from sensory system. This information is processed in the mind by top-down processing via pre-stored information (schemas) in the memory. Finally, when the information is processed there is some output in the form of behavior. Applications of principle

This information processing approach/principle can be seen in: Schema Theory: assumed to operate through top-down processing; the role of schema (organized sets of associated information) shape perception and can increase efficiency of processing, but can also lead to distortions. They allow us to take short-cuts in interpreting cast amounts of information. State principle 2

Another principle the CLA states is that the mind can be studied scientifically by developing theories and by using a number of scientific research methods Mental processes/representations can be...
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