James-Lange Theory: Our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
Perception of stimulus (car) arousal (pounding heart) emotion (fear)
Cannon-Bard Theory: An emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the experience of emotion perception of stimulus arousal & emotion
Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory: To experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal. perception of stimulus arousal & cognitive label (I'm afraid) emotion
Emotional arousal and physiological responses are controlled by the divisions of the autonomic nervous system:
-Julie will be competing in a basketball free throw contest. Her performance is likely to be best if her physiological arousal during the performance is moderate.
-Difficult tasks are better with low arousal, easy tasks are performed better with higher arousal.
• More activity in amygdala when watching fearful (vs. angry) faces
• Negative emotions= right hemisphere positive emotions= left hemisphere
Robert Zajonc: Emotions need no inferences; We can have emotional reactions apart from (and even before) we interpret a situation.
Example: Participants subliminally primed with a happy face rate a subsequent ideograph as more positive than when primed with a sad face
Speedy low road: fear stimulus thalamus amygdala fear response
(bypasses prefrontal & sensory cortex's)
-When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to participants, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in the Amygdala
-Feigned smile 4-5 seconds, genuine smile fades by then
-Gender neutral face when expressing happiness=female, anger=male
-Womens faces show more emotion than men, although they report the same