Police and Security Science 3

Topics: Evidence law, Confession, False confession Pages: 33 (6512 words) Published: April 14, 2013

Sources of human information

The truth finding mission- most false convictions are made because of false witness statements

Facial Identification
Hard to describe a person’s features in words, but it is very easy to identify someone. Misattribution- you think someone assaults you, but it is actually a guy who lives in your apartment building and did not do it. You just miss inform yourself of what actually went down Change Blindness- cognitive attention and instinctive attention- Cognitive- making effort to focus or watch a particular aspect Instinctive attention- things like sitting in a crowd, and you hear your name, and you are all of a sudden paying attention, phone rings with same ring tone as yours, etc

Course objectives
* Victims
* Complainant
* Witnesses
* Suspects
* Accused


Empirical vs. Anecdotal
DemonstratedBased on incidents experience
Scientifically thorough

Very important when attempting to detect deception

Greater importance on physical evidence
* Reliability- irrefutable
* We get fewer confessions (Charter of Rights and Freedoms changes) * We have newer scientific advances- amazing things are found through science

Limitations of Physical Evidence
Perception- Perspective and interpretation- young woman versus an old woman

Challenges of effective investigations:
* Obtain accurate recollections
* Assess the credibility of the information
* Develop skills to obtain information from those reluctant to provide it Can be from the witness, the perpetrator or a victim

A person against whom a crime has been committed
A person who is affected:
* Physically
* Emotionally
* Psychologically
By an occurrence
* Financial loss, etc.

Primary and secondary
Primary- directly affected
Secondary- indirectly affected

Types of Victimization
* Crimes of violence
* Property crimes
* Tragic events

Victim trauma response/why we feel victimized
Why does a person feel victimized?
* Sudden, arbitrary and unpredictable thing that occurs
* Attack on the sense of self- feel violated
* Intentional but not personal
* Loss of control in the situation

The Stockholm Syndrome-

* Self defence, self preservation and survival- very compliant, not resisting * Indebtedness sort of feeling from the victims towards the perpetrator * Fear of rescue
* Denial- dream that you are not where you are- distracted from the situation * Identification with the captor- maybe he has a good reason for what he is doing

Lima- hostage situation in Peru is the opposite flip of the coin- captors feel very sympathetic to the victims and such

Five stages of grief
* Denial- think they will call, or come home or something * Anger- mad at someone who may be responsible, or at the police for whatever reasons * Bargaining- praying that it changes, “I will do this is that changes” * Depression- brief, may linger, etc

* Acceptance- comes to grips with what has happened and moves on * Some people never reach this stage.
Facilitative effect / victim compliance- stats Canada / robberies Likelihood of injuries
Gunpoint- 33%
Knife- 50%
Club or fist- 80%

Secondary Victimization
3 “I” words
* Injustice- failure of the justice system for you
* Indignity- a sexual assault
* Isolation
Avoid why questions- why were you there? Why were you dressed that way?

Detection of Deception is done starting with the victims

Public Mischief Section 140 or C.C.C-

Dual procedure offence- summary- 5k fine, 6 month or both
Indictable- 5 years

Validation process- indicators
* Irrational
* Inconsistencies
* Improbable things
* Non criminal thinking
* They may tell you what you want to hear
* No corroboration
* Delayed reporting, avoidance
* Lack of...
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