1. PAPER BATTERY
Traditionally, electronics have been designed around their batteries. The batteries form a significant part of many electronic devices. Typical electrochemical batteries or cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy.
Batteries based on the charging ability are classified into primary and secondary cells. Secondary cells are widely used because of their rechargeable nature. Presently, battery takes up a huge amount of space and contributes to a large part of the device's weight.
There is strong recent interest in ultrathin, flexible, safe energy storage devices to meet the various design and power needs of modern gadgets. New research suggests that carbon nanotubes may eventually provide the best hope of implementing the flexible batteries which can shrink our gadgets even more.
A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and supercapacitor, combining two components that are separate in traditional electronics.
This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy. Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have the potential to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies.
The paper we use is made of pure cellulose, which is the natural polymer that is found in wood and other plant materials. Normal paper that you use in school is made from small fibers of cellulose along with bleaching compounds and binders (glue), but the “paper” we use is not fibrous, it is a smooth sheet of pure cellulose, with small pores that allow the for the lithium to move from one side of the battery to the other. 1.2 ABSTRACT
A paper battery is a battery engineered to use a paper-thin sheet of cellulose (which is the major constituent of regular paper, among other things) infused with aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes act as electrodes; allowing the storage devices to conduct electricity. The battery, which functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor, can provide a long, steady power output comparable to a conventional battery, as well as a supercapacitor’s quick burst of high energy—and while a conventional battery contains a number of separate components, the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure, making it more energy efficient. The paper-like quality of the battery combined with the structure of the nanotubes embedded within gives them their light weight and low cost, making them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, automobiles, and toys (such as model aircraft), while their ability to use electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical devices such as pacemakers. The medical uses are particularly attractive because they do not contain any toxic materials and can be biodegradable; a major drawback of chemical cells. The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes that are each approximately one millionth of a centimetre thick. The carbon is what gives the batteries their black color. These tiny filaments act like the electrode s found in a traditional battery, conducting electricity when the paper comes into contact with an ionic liquid solution. Ionic liquids contain no water, which means that there is nothing to freeze or evaporate in extreme environmental conditions. As a result, paper batteries can function between -75 and 150 degrees celsius.
Specialized paper batteries could act as power sources for any number of devices implanted in humans and animals, including rfid tags, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems and pacemakers. A capacitor introduced into an organism could be implanted fully dry and then be gradually exposed to bodily...
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