P–N Junction Diode

Topics: Diode, Electric charge, P-n junction Pages: 5 (1666 words) Published: February 13, 2014
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor material, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor. It is created by doping, for example by ion implantation, diffusion of dopants, or by epitaxy (growing a layer of crystal doped with one type of dopant on top of a layer of crystal doped with another type of dopant). If two separate pieces of material were used, this would introduce a grain boundary between the semiconductors that severely inhibits its utility by scattering the electrons and holes. p–n junctions are elementary "building blocks" of most semiconductor electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, solar cells, LEDs, and integrated circuits; they are the active sites where the electronic action of the device takes place. For example, a common type of transistor, the bipolar junction transistor, consists of two p–n junctions in series, in the form n–p–n or p–n–p. The discovery of the p–n junction is usually attributed to American physicist Russell Ohl of Bell Laboratories. A Schottky junction is a special case of a p–n junction, where metal serves the role of the p-type semiconductor.

*Contents
1 Properties of a p–n junction
2 Equilibrium (zero bias)
3 Forward bias
4 Reverse bias
5 Summary
6 Non-rectifying junctions

** Properties of a p–n junction **
The p–n junction possesses some interesting properties that have useful applications in modern electronics. A p-doped semiconductor is relatively conductive. The same is true of an n-doped semiconductor, but the junction between them can become depleted of charge carriers, and hence non-conductive, depending on the relative voltages of the two semiconductor regions. By manipulating this non-conductive layer, p–n junctions are commonly used as diodes: circuit elements that allow a flow of electricity in one direction but not in the other (opposite) direction. This property is explained in terms of forward bias and reverse bias, where the term bias refers to an application of electric voltage to the p–n junction.

**Equilibrium (zero bias)**
In a p–n junction, without an external applied voltage, an equilibrium condition is reached in which a potential difference is formed across the junction. This potential difference is called built-in potential V_{{{\rm {bi}}}}. After joining p-type and n-type semiconductors, electrons from the n region near the p–n interface tend to diffuse into the p region. As electrons diffuse, they leave positively charged ions (donors) in the n region. Likewise, holes from the p-type region near the p–n interface begin to diffuse into the n-type region, leaving fixed ions (acceptors) with negative charge. The regions nearby the p–n interfaces lose their neutrality and become charged, forming the space charge region or depletion layer

The electric field created by the space charge region opposes the diffusion process for both electrons and holes. There are two concurrent phenomena: the diffusion process that tends to generate more space charge, and the electric field generated by the space charge that tends to counteract the diffusion.

The space charge region is a zone with a net charge provided by the fixed ions (donors or acceptors) that have been left uncovered by majority carrier diffusion. When equilibrium is reached, the charge density is approximated by the displayed step function. In fact, the region is completely depleted of majority carriers (leaving a charge density equal to the net doping level), and the edge between the space charge region and the neutral region is quite sharp.he space charge region has the same magnitude of charge on both sides of the p–n interfaces, thus it extends farther on the less doped side

**Forward bias mode **
In forward bias, the p-type is connected with the positive terminal and the n-type is connected with the negative terminal.

With a battery connected this way, the holes in the P-type region and the electrons in the...
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