Organic Chemistry

Topics: Alcohol, Amine, Chemical bond Pages: 23 (4779 words) Published: July 8, 2013
* Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Understand the basis of drawing organic structures
Depicting 3-D structures in 2-D
Most organic compounds have a three-dimensional structure. How do we represent structures on our two-dimensional page?
For example, methane is a tetrahedral molecule:

Bonds in the plane of the paper:

Bonds coming towards the observer: (out of the page)

Bonds going away from the observer: (into the page)

Representing Organic Structures

Molecular Formula
Structural Formula
* show all atoms and bonds
Condensed Structural Formula
* Atoms are shown, bonds are understood
* Atoms bonded to a C atom are listed after it
Stick Representation
Lines represent bonds
* 1 line = single bond
* 2 lines = double bond
* 3 lines = triple bond
C atoms are NOT shown
* Assumed at intersection of two or more bonds * Assumed at end of each bond
H atoms bonded to C are NOT shown
* Assumed from the valence of C
All heteroatoms are shown
H atoms bonded to heteroatoms ARE shown
Remember when drawing neutral organic compounds… * C has a valence of 4 (4 bonds, no lone pairs)
* N has a valence of 3 (3 bonds, 1 lone pair)
* has a valence of 2 (2 bonds, 2 lone pairs)
* X (halogens = F, Cl, Br, I) have a valence of 1 (1 bond, 3 lone pairs)

Convert between a condensed molecular formula and a skeletal or line structure Determine the formula of a molecule from its skeletal representation Table Above
Identify the functional groups in a molecule
An organic compound can be viewed as a skeleton of carbon-carbon single bonds with "functional groups" attached at different positions.

Functional groups in an organic compound:
* Are the reactive parts
§ multiple bonds
§ bonds to heteroatoms
* Undergo the same chemical reactions irrespective of the type of molecule that contains them * Confer the characteristic chemical and physical properties of the compounds that contain them * A molecule with several functional groups displays reactivity which is the sum of the reactions that each functional group undergoes

Naming Functional Groups

* Alkanes
Name simple alkanes using IUPAC nomenclature
Need a unique name for every unique compound Use IUPAC naming system The name has several parts:

The Rules
1) Find the longest carbon chain containing the functional group - this is the stem – name the chain and add the appropriate functional group ending 2) Identify any substituent(s)

3) Number the longest chain to give the lowest possible numbering for substituent(s) 4) Allocate a number to every substituent
5) List substituents in alphabetical order
6) Identical substituents are indicated by prefixes: di (2), tri (3), tetra (4), then penta (5), hexa (6)... 7) Finally write it all out as one word
Alkanes have the ending “–ane”
To get names for substituents just replace the ending “-ane” with “-yl”

Distinguish between conformational and configurational isomers of alkanes 
Constitutional Isomers
* Alkanes form a homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons that differ by a CH2 group. They have the general formula CnH2n+2 * Molecules with the same molecular formula but a different bond connectivity are called constitutional isomers (sometimes...
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