you'd hdhdhd hdjfdjjf hdjdjdjd dhdhdjdj dhdjdjd dhdjdj dhdhdj dhdjdj dhdhdj dhdhdhe dhdhdh dhdhdjd djsjdh dhdhd dhdhdjd dhdhdh dhdhdhddbdhhddh dhdhdjjd dhdhdjd xjckckkc jfjfnfnf djdjd dhdh djdjd djfbdjdbdjdbhdvdhd djd hdbdbdjdbdjr jd ddbd djd you'dyou'dyou'dyou'dyou'd shows an increased risk. For the table below, a relative risk of 4 means that individuals with that condition are 4 times as likely as similar individuals without the same condition, to develop a venous thrombotic event. Despite the increased risk, it is important to remember that the relative risk is a statistical tool to help guide clinicians and scientists and that individual persons can have increased or decreased risks. Even with a very high relative risk, there is no guarantee that a venous thrombotic event will occur.
Treatment of Protein S Deficiency:
Treatment of a patient with protein S deficiency depends upon the individual patient's risk of thromboembolic disease. When a patient has a venous clot, regardless of what thrombophilic state(s) they may have, they will receive anticoagulation. This is accomplished by several different medications: 1) heparin, 2) warfarin and 3) low-molecular-weight heparins. These medications are generally continued for 3-6 months.
Patients that have had multiple thromboembolic episodes or are at high risk of further episodes (for example, multiple deficiencies) may be considered for long-term oral anticoagulation (warfarin). Because studies have demonstrated an increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolic disease in patients with protein S deficiency, long-term oral anticoagulation) is recommended. Long-term anticoagulation has risks associated with it (approximately a 3% chance per year of having a major hemorrhage, of which approximately 1/5 are fatal). Beginning long-term anticoagulation is influenced by the patient's overall risk of recurrent thrombosis balanced against the risks associated with long-term anticoagulation on an individual...
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