Treatment of Protein S Deficiency: Treatment of a patient with protein S deficiency depends upon the individual patient's risk of thromboembolic disease. When a patient has a venous clot, regardless of what thrombophilic state(s) they may have, they will receive anticoagulation. This is accomplished by several different medications: 1) heparin, 2) warfarin and 3) low-molecular-weight heparins. These medications are generally continued for 3-6 months.
Patients that have had multiple thromboembolic episodes or are at high risk of further episodes (for example, multiple deficiencies) may be considered for long-term oral anticoagulation (warfarin). Because studies have demonstrated an increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolic disease in patients with protein S deficiency, long-term oral anticoagulation) is recommended. Long-term anticoagulation has risks associated with it (approximately a 3% chance per year of having a major hemorrhage, of which approximately 1/5 are fatal). Beginning long-term anticoagulation is influenced by the patient's overall risk of recurrent thrombosis balanced against the risks associated with long-term anticoagulation on an individual