Every point on an advancing wave front provides a new point of source for the wave

Predicts reflection, refraction und diffraction

Maxwell’s equations

All related equations and observations to electricity and magnetism into 4 little equations

The electromagnetic spectrum

The product of wavelength and frequency is speed is the speed of the wave:

Photon

Relationship between frequency and photon energy Planck’s Assumption:

Photons have momentum but no mass

Momentum of photon

As wavelength increases of a photon, frequency decreases and energy decreases.

As wavelength decreases of a photon, frequency increases and energy increases.

Photoelectric effect Shining light on a metal causes electrons to be emitted

Below some frequency, no photons are emitted regardless of intensity of light.

As frequency of the light increases, the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons increase.

As the intensity of the light increases under a certain frequency, the number of the electrons ( current I) increases.

Photon energy is quantized.

Some energy is needed to liberate an electron form a material. This amount of energy is called the Work Function Φ.

Wave-like nature of electrons

De Broglie: electrons (matter in general) displays wave-like behavior.

Double slit experiment: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FeCV27-mk0I

Photons behave like waves, proven by the double slit experiment.

Wavelength of an electron

Momentum of an electron

Emission spectra

High voltage is applied in a gas introduced vacuumed tube with metal electrodes.

Once a current is flowing the gas atoms get excited and this results in light mission.

When light is emitted, its due to the electrons going for an excited state to a non-excited state. The amount of energy released in this light is:

Rydberg Formula