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Module 1 Brain and Behavior Notes

By dlTracy Jun 04, 2013 675 Words
PSYC 101
BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR
PARTS OF THE BRAIN

MEDULLA- LOCATED IN THE BRAIN STEM; CONTROLS BREATHING AND HEARTBEAT

PONS- LOCATED IN THE BRAINSTEM; CONTROLS BREATHING AND HEARTBEAT; CONNECTS THE MEDULLA TO THE TWO SIDES OF THE CEREVELLUM TO HELP COORDINATE AND INTEGRATE MOVEMENT ON EACH SIDE OF THE BODY; INVOLVED IN SLEEP AND DREAMING

RETICULAR FORMATION- A NERVE NETWORK THAT RUNS UP THE CENTER OF THE BRAINSTEM; PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN CONTROLLING ALERTNESS AND ATTENTION.

CEREBELLUM- LOCATED AT THE BACK OF THE BRAINSTEM; ASSIST IN BALANCE AND THE COORDINATION OF VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT.

MIDBRAIN- LOCATED NEAR THE TOP OF THE BRAINSTEM; INTEGRATE SPECIFIC TYPES OF INFORMATION FROM THE EYES AND THE EARS, AND SENDS THIS ON TO OTHER PARTS OF THE BRAIN.

THALAMUS- LOCATED AVOVE THE MIDBRAIN AT THE TOP OF THE BRAINSTEM; ROUTES INCOMEING MESSAGES FROM ALL THE SENSES (EXCEPT SMELL) TO THE APPROPIATE BRAIN ARESA FOR PROCESSING.

HIPPOCAMPUS- PART OF THE LIMBIC SYSTEM; IS INVOLVED IN LEARNING AN DIN FORMING NEW MEMORIES

AMYGDALA- PART OF THE LIMBIC SYSTEM; IS INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF THE EMOTIONS OF FEAR AND RAGE.

HYPOTHALAMUS- PART OF THE LIMBIC SYSTEM; REGULATES HUNGER, THIRST, AND BODY TEMPERATURE AND CONTAINS THE SO-CALLED PLEASURE CENTERS OF THE BRAIN.

PITUITARY GLAND- THE MASTER GLAND OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

ANGULAR GYRUS- LOCATED AT THE JUNCTION OF THE TEMPORAL LOVE AND THE PARIETAL LOBE; SUPPORTS READING BY TRANSLATING WRITTEN LANGUAGE INTO AN AUDITORY CODE APHASIA- AN IMPAIRMENT OF LANGUAGE AS A RESULT OF DAMAGE TO ANY OF THE LANGUAGE AREAS

ASSOCIATION AREAS- LOCATED THROUGHOUT THE CORTEX; INTEGRATE INFORMATION FROM MANYPARTS OF THE BRAIN; INVOLVED IN HIGHER MENTAL FUNCTIONS, SUCH AS REMEMBERING, INTERPRETING EVENTS, AND MAKING JUDGMENTS AUDITORY CORTEX- LOCATED IN TEMPORAL LOVES; PROCESSES INFORMATION FROM THE EAR

BRAINSTEM- THE OLDEST AND INNERMOST REGION OF THE BRAIN; IS AN EXTENSION OF THE SPINAL CORD; ITS STRUCTURES (THE HINDBRAIN, THE MIDBRAIN, AND THE THALAMUS) DIRECT AUTOMATIC SURVIVAL FUNCTIONS AND RELAY MESSAGES

BROCA’S AREA- LOCATED IN THE LEFT FRONTAL LOBE; IS INVOLVED IN CONTROLLING THE MOTOR ABILITY TO PRODUCE SPEECH

CEREBRAL CORTEX- THE THIN OUTER COVERING OF THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES WHERE THE BRAIN’S PRIMARY

CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES- THE LARGE UPPER PORTIONS OF EACH SIDE OF THE BRAIN

CORPUS CALLOSUM- A WIDE BAND OF NEURAL FIBERS THAT LINKS THE RIGHT AND LEFT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES AND ALLOWS THEM TO COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER

FOREBRAIN- THE UPPER PORTION OF THE BRAIN; CONTAINS THE CEREBRAL CORTEX AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES

FOREBRAIN- THE UPPER PORTION OF THE BRAIN; CONTAINS THE CEREBRAL CORTEX AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES

FRONTAL LOBES- LOCATED AT THE FRONT OF THE BRAIN, JUST BEHIND THE FOREHEAD; CONTAIN THE MOTOR CORTEX; ALSO INVOLVED IN SPEAKING AND IN MAKING PLANS AND JUDGEMENTS

HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION- THE PRINCIPLE THAT EACH HALF OF THE BRAIN HAS SOME SPECIAL

HINDBRAIN- ANOTHER TERM FOR OLDEST AND LOWEST PART OF THE BRAIN; CONAINING THE MEDULLA, PONS, RETICULAR FORMATION AND CEREBELLUM

LANGUAGE CORTEX- CONTROLS SPEAKING AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF SPOKEN AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE

LIMBIC SYSTEM- PLAYS AND IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE REGULATION OF EMOTIONS AND BASIC PHYSIOLOGICAL DRIVES

MOTOR CORTEX- LOCATED ALONG THE BACK EDGE OF THE FRONTAL LOBES; CONTROLS VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT

NEURAL NETWORKS- CLUSTERS OF INTERCONNECTED NEURONS THAT ARE SPECIALIZED FOR A PARTICULAR PROCESSING TASK

OCCIPITAL LOBES- LOCATED AT THE BACK AND BAS OF THE BRAIN; CONTAIN THE VISUAL CORTEX, WHICH RECEIVES INFORMATION FROM THE EYES

PARIETAL LOBES- SITUATED BETWEEN THE FRONTAL AND OCCIPITAL LOBES AT THE TOP REAR OF THE HEAD; CONTAIN THE SENSORY CORTEX

PLEASURE CENTERS- ANIMALS WILL WORK HARD TO RECEIVE ELECTRICAL BRAIN STIMULATION IN THESE AREAS, WHICH ARE LOCATED PRIMARILY IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS

SENSORY (SOMATOSENSORY) CORTEX- LOCATED ALONG THE FRONT EDGE OF THE PARIETAL LOBES; REGISTERS AND PROCESSES BODY SENSATIONS

SPLIT-BRAIN PATIENTS- INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE HAD SURGERY TO CUT THE CORPUS CALLOSUM (USUALLY TO HELP WITH SEVERE EPILEPCY)

TEMPORAL LOBES- LOCATED ON THE SIDES OF THE BRAIN; CONTAIN THE AUDITORY AREAS, WHICH RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM THE EARS

VISUAL CORTEX- LOCATED IN THE OCCIPITAL LOBES; PROCESSES INFORMATION FROM THE EYE

WERNICKE’S AREA- LOCATED IN THE LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE; IS INVOLVED IN LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION

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