Part 1: Terms
The Dunning school of thought was named after William Dunning—a professor at Columbia University (1857-1922). Dunning was the first historian in 1900’s to look at the after civil war and reconstruction era. He came up with the idea that the South was a victim of the—Tragic Era—construction era. Dunning‘s vision depicts the slave holders as honorable men, while the “carpetbaggers” and “scalawags” as corrupts and opportunist who took advantage of the weakened South. Moreover, Dunning school legitimated segregation and black codes by claiming that the freed men were unable to self-govern themselves and blend into the society. On the other hand, Dunning depicts the Ku Klux Klan as the saviors of the south and a symbol of justice. The Dunning school of thought became obsolete after being subject to historical revisionism by many historians.
Eugene Debs was the founder and leader of the American Railway Union in Chicago. After the 1893 depression, Pullman slashed their workers’ wages without reducing their rent. As a result, thousands of workers joined the ARU and went on strike led by Eugene Debs. However, the powerful railroad executives decided to break the strike by bringing strikebreakers from among jobless easterners. Also, They managed to involve the Federal troops by pretending that the Pullman strikers refused to move the US mail cars—which was a lie—and invoking the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. When the Union refused to stop the strike, Debs was jailed by the federal troops. The interaction between the federal troops and the union strikers have caused 13 dead, 53 wounded, and 700 freight car burned. The Machiavellian corporates—by associating strikers with anarchism and violence—persuaded the state and federal officials to limit the unions’ abilities and powers to negotiate. In 1895, the supreme Court upheld Debs prison sentence and legalized injection against labor unions. This marks the beginning of the powerful and the “too big to fail”...
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